GI diseases

Gastritisis a disease in in which the lining of the stomach lining is inflamed making itto produce less acid and enzymes, and less mucus and other substances thatnormally needed to protect the stomach lining from acidic digestive juice.Gastritis can be acute or chronic, but it can also be erosive or nonerosive. Themost common causes of gastritis include Helicobacterpylori, infection, damage to the stomach lining causing reactivegastritis which may be due to usage of NSAIDS, alcohol, cocaine, radiation,stress caused by traumatic injuries (CDC & NIH,  2016).  Also, an autoimmuneresponse can also be one of main causes of gastritis. People with gastritis usuallypresent with symptoms of pain or discomfort in the upper part of the abdomen.

Also, other symptoms may include nausea and vomiting. Sometimes, some peoplemay have Signs and symptoms of bleeding in the stomach caused by erosivegastritis, including shortness of breath, dizziness, hematemesis, black, tarrystools, hematochezia, weakness, paleness, which need immediate attention. Whengastritis is not treated appropriately, some complications may occur due tochronic gastritis, such as peptic ulcers, anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anemia(CDC& NIH, 2016). Diagnosinggastritis can be done based on the following ways according to studies: a goodmedical history, physical exam, upper endoscopy along other tests such as upperGI series, blood tests, stool test for H pylori and blood, and urea breath testto help detect H. pylori infectionin the GI tract. Once gastritis is detected, there are many measures andtreatment that a health care provider can use. First, it is suggested to treatthe underlying cause first, and reduce the amount of acid in the stomach by prescribingmedications like antacids, H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors that can helppromote healing of the stomach lining (CDC, 2016; Elliot, 2007). Education about preventive measurescan also important factors in treatment.

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For instance, health care providers canadvise people to help preventing the infection by washing their hands with soapand water before eating or after using bathroom, eat food are washed well and wellcooked, and clean drinking water from safe source (CDC & NIH, 2016).GastroenteritisIn comparison, gastroenteritis, as another GI systemdisease, is an inflammation of the lining of the intestines that is often causedby either a virus, bacteria or parasites. The most common causes of viralgastroenteritis are norovirus and rotavirusinfections that spread throughcontaminated food or water and contact with an infected person. People who areat higher risk of gastroenteritis are children in daycare, military persons,travelers and students living in dorms, and people with weak immune system.

Symptomsof gastroenteritis often include diarrhea, abdominal pain,vomiting, headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, and chills. Other symptoms are diarrhea,poor feeding in infants, excessive sweating, Clammy skin, muscle pain or jointstiffness (CDC, 2016; Elliot, 2007).. People with gastritis may becomedehydrated quickly due to symptoms of vomiting and diarrhea. Therefore, signsof dehydration are important factors in physical exam. Nevertheless, peopleusually recover from gastroenteritis with no treatment.

Diagnosing ofgastroenteritis can be made based on medical history and physical examination.One of the most important treatment in gastroenteritis is to keep the patientsdehydrated. the replacement of fluids and electrolytes that are lost due todiarrhea and vomiting in gastroenteritis is the most vital factor when treatinggastroenteritis (CDC, 2016; Elliot, 2007).. Antibiotics are usually not advisedsince the disease is mostly caused by virus.Antiemetics are often notrecommended because the vomiting related to gastroenteritis disorder is usuallyself-limited and also giving an antiemetic such as Zofran may increase the possibilityof dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, pulmonary aspiration, IV hydration orhospitalization.

 Also, furtherpreventions such as proper hygiene by washing hands frequently before andafter, eat washed and well coked food are as well important. According to researchstudies, the best prevention is frequent hand washing (CDC,2016; Elliot, 2007). CholecystitisFinally, cholecystitis isanother GI disease that can be compared as a differential diagnosis.

cholecystitis is disease caused dueto inflammation of the gallbladder, which may become a serious condition later.There are two main causes of cholecystitis: calculous cholecystitis andacalculous cholecystitis. Calculous cholecystitis, the most common but lessserious, often develops when the cystic duct is blocked by a gallstone or abiliary sludge, which is a mix of bile and cholesterol crystals and salt (Huffman & Schenker, 2010).

Once the cystic duct is blocked, there is a building up ofthat biliary sludge in the gallbladder causing an increase in pressure andcausing also the inflammation of the gallbladder. However, acalculouscholecystitis, which is less common but have more serious effect, occurs becauseof an infection or injury that damages the gallbladder. Common diseases causingacalculous cholecystitis are burns, sepsis, severe malnutrition, AIDS, majordamage associated with a surgery (Huffman& Schenker, 2010).People with cholecystitis oftenpresent with signs and symptoms of upper right quadrant sudden sharp pain radiatingto right shoulder that can be constant or stay for few minutes, tender abdomen,breathing difficulty, fever, nausea and vomiting, sweating, loss of appetite,and jaundice. History and physical along physical examination are importantaspects in helping to diagnosing cholecystitis. Also, some tests that should beconsidered are blood tests ERS and CRP, an ultrasound of abdomen to check forstone, X-ray, Ct scan or MRI to examine the gallbladder (Huffman & Schenker, 2010). As compare to the above GI disorders, people who arediagnosed with cholecystitis should be treated in a hospital setting.

Treatmentsare as followed: keep patient NPO to help straining off the gallbladder, giveIV fluids to prevent dehydration, pain medication. If an infection issuspected, it is advised that antibiotics should be administered. However,sometimes those treatments may not be sufficient, and there is a need forsurgery, removal of the gallbladder to prevent complications. Surgery can be donein two ways: laparoscopic cholecystectomy and open cholecystectomy.

Cholecystitis can be prevented by adoptinga healthy and balanced diet with low cholesterol food to prevent gallstonesformation, but also avoiding a low calorie and rapid weight loss (Huffman & Schenker, 2010). ReferencesCenters forDisease Control and Prevention. Norovirus Accessed 4/7/2016.NationalInstitute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Viral Gastroenteritis Accessed          2016Elliott EJ.

Acutegastroenteritis in children. BMJ. 2007;334(7583):35–40.

Huffman, Jason L. & Schenker,Steven (2010). Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis: A Review.         Journal of ClinicalGastroenterology and hepatology, Volume8, Issue 1, Pages 15–22.


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