· Add NNR from Workshop four
· Highlight NNR, selecting feature, creating NNR selected, create new layer
· Raster to polygon tool inputting model_1 and unticking the box
· Dissolve layers inputting Raster_1 and tick the grid code box and okay
· Clip Raster_1_dissloved in input, NNR selection in clip features creating Raster_clip layer. Make sure 3 and 4 are selected and show up as layers.
· Only the os_map_cadiar, cadiar, model_1, and raster_clip should be ticked
· NNR selection is transparent to see the raster_clip layer
A. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) can be used for a range of different things, this includes using it to display the spatial data and being able to solve problems which are involved within spatial factors. GIS can also be used for management resources, crime mapping, establishing and monitoring routes, managing networks, monitoring and managing vehicles, mapping invasive species and more (Extension. 2010). This makes the programme very helpful as it can be used in so many different situations. It will allow you to work with a base map and then layers can be added after they have been downloaded which will show additional information (GIS CONTRIBUTOR. 2012). Once these layers have been added, statistical and analytic tools can be used which will give spatial analysis to give representations of the data (GIS CONTRIBUTOR. 2012). These representations can then reveal patterns which wouldn’t get noticed without GIS (GIS CONTRIBUTOR. 2012). The main reason that GIS is used is to show a visual representation of the data (GIS CONTRIBUTOR. 2012). GIS provides data that can then be placed in a database to give us an understanding of the mapped format (GIS CONTRIBUTOR. 2012). There is also the opportunity to analyse proximity which identifies the relationship between one location along with another location (GIS CONTRIBUTOR. 2012). There is something called buffering, to use this a zone must be created and given a point of the distance (GIS CONTRIBUTOR. 2012). This method is helpful when wanting to find out how many of something is surrounding something else, so for example how many swimming pools there are within a village (GIS CONTRIBUTOR. 2012). It can also be used for location analysis, this would be used to identify a location that has a new retail outlet (GIS CONTRIBUTOR. 2012).
B. When using GIS there are some limitations in what can be worked on. From what Rodgerson and Fotheringham (2007) say there is a limitation when working with the spatial analysis within the maps. The workers are still trying to work with removing the existing impediments in order to reduce the limitation when using the spatial analysis (Fotheringham and Rogerson. 2007). This programme has been used as a trial and error programme which uncovers design flaws and through failure of analysis (Miles, S et al. 1999). Learning from mistakes or misuse has played an integral role within the maturation of the civil engineering practice (Miles, S et al. 1999). GIS is a very popular programme which makes it important that when it is used in the wrong way, the mistakes and misuse of the programme is learnt from or will result in failure. One of the problems involves the polygons, as case study boundaries were being looked at within the soil properties, although these properties can change and they do not possess boundaries that continually change. So, depending on what work you are looking at within GIS the results you get will not always be reliable. Different techniques can be performed on GIS and although it is different the results that are being obtained are very similar. It is suggested that some of the techniques can be lacking in what they show or what they do. There is also a problem concerning the metacognitive awareness and self-awareness of the operation and effectiveness of the engineer’s ability and skills (Downs 1997).
C. There are many layers that can be added to the GIS Boundary model. For instance, the eagle is a predator of the Ring Ouzel and they would definitely affect the bird population itself as well as their nesting sites. The eagle will actually drive the ring ouzels and other birds away from their nesting area and if this bird has got chicks then it could greatly affect the chicks, causing them to die and also cause a great amount of distress on the adult birds (Madge and Kightley. 2007). It has been stated that from the early 20th century there has been a decline within the numbers of the population of the Ring Ouzel and where the species ranged there has been a 27% decreasing difference from 1970 to 1990 (Burfield. 2002). Due to the decrease in the number of Ring Ouzel and the nesting areas being destroyed or taken over by eagles, it would be interesting to see where all of the nesting areas where before there was a decline within the numbers and compare it with the current amount of area that is covered in which the birds are nesting. A layer which identifies where the eagles nesting areas are situated in contrast of where the Ring Ouzel’s nesting areas are could also be interesting, as it would show how far they would have to travel in order to take over the Ouzel’s nesting areas, and whether they are just trying to add more area surrounding them or whether they are just trying to gain a totally new nesting site. There could also be the habitats of surrounding non-predatory birds that are popular within the area that the Ouzels are situated that may want to compete for the nesting grounds. For example, within a paper by Shcmid et al (2008) they were looking at the ring ouzel and the blackbird within Switzerland. As can be seen from figure 1 and 2, these habitats of the ring ouzel are being looked at within Cadiar, so it could be interesting in looking at other habitats within other countries where the ring ouzel population is high, such as in Switzerland. The climate change and rainfall has also caused a big effect in harming the abundance of the Ring Ouzels (Sim et al. 2006). The most affected areas of climate change near to the Ring Ouzels could be recorded which could also show the decline in the numbers. There is also some human interference that has affected the Ring Ouzel, this is due to disturbance of the nesting areas, as these birds nest in heather bushes and when humans are going to walks with their dogs for example, this can get affected (Ryall and Brigg. 2006). There is also the change in habitat, humans will intervene and change the area around and within nesting areas which will cause the Ring Ouzel to have to nest in something other than heather and it will also be causing disturbance for the adults and their young (Ryall and Brigg. 2006). In order to get all of this extra information and these extra layers, they will need to be downloaded off the internet as the information will not be able to be obtained from current data that is provided.
Burfield, I. (2002). The breeding ecology and conservation of the ring ouzel Turdus torquatus in Britain. Available: http://www.ringouzel.info/research/Ian%20Burfield%20Thesis.pdf. Last accessed 13/12/2017.
Downs, R. M. (1997). ‘‘The geographic eye: Seeing through GIS?’’ Trans. in GIS, 2(2), 111–121.
Extension. (2010). What are some uses for GIS?. Available: https://articles.extension.org/pages/40217/what-are-some-uses-for-gis. Last accessed 13/12/2017.
Fotheringham, S and Rogerson, P. (2007). GIS and spatial analytical problems. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems. 7 (1), 3-19.
GIS CONTRIBUTOR. (2012). Basic Uses of GIS. Available: https://www.gislounge.com/basic-uses-of-gis/. Last accessed 13/12/2017.
Madge, S and Kightley, C. (2007). Ring Ouzel. Available: http://www.birdsofbritain.co.uk/bird-guide/ring-ouzel.asp. Last accessed 13/12/2017.
Miles, S et al. (1999). APPLICATIONS AND ISSUES OF GIS AS TOOL FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING MODELING. JOURNAL OF COMPUTING IN CIVIL ENGINEERING. 13 (3), 144-152.
Ryall, C and Brigg, K. (2006). Some factors affecting foraging and habitat of Ring Ouzels Turdus torquatus wintering in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco. ABC Bulletin . 13 (1), 17-31.
Schmid, H et al. (2008) Modelling the recent and potential future spatial distribution of the Ring Ouzel (Turdus torquatus) and Blackbird (T. merula) in Switzerland. Journal of Ornithology. 149 (4), 529–544
Sim, I et al. (2006). Climate change may account for the decline in British ring ouzels Turdus torquatus. Journal of Animal Ecology. 75 (3), 826–835.