Greek Social and Political Thought Greek political thought I Introduction Most of the modern political institutions and values are grateful to the Ancient Greeks political thought. Issues such as I Justice, liberty, constitutional government, respect for law, democracy, property, assembly, government all are dealt, in this I lord that way, during the Ancient time by different political philosophers. These issues were dealt on the basis of political I I institutions limited with the scope of the city-state.
The Greek city-state was as important to the Ancient man as nation-state I LIFO a modern man. But the problems of city-state were different from the ones going on in modern state. Although the problems I I and the way that different thought were formulated in solving these problems were different there is a similarity between two I Times in emphasizing these conceptions. Beginning from the Ancient time up to the modern times the issues mentioned above have I Been dealt by different thinkers.
The meaning of such terms has been modified and understood according to the social and I Political conditions of different periods. In order to understand these concepts better one serially needs to elaborate their I I roots that have been understood differently from period to period. This week the concern of our lecture will be to remark some I I basic political and social institutions of Ancient Greek and their features. Eastern Thought In General I landed, Eastern thought was in character authoritarian. As it is well known in Hamburger of Babylon the kinship was formulated SSL la godly authority.
The laws of Hamburger were accepted as the law of God, to be obeyed without questioning. According to the I I Ancient Chinese thought the ultimate authority must be that of rueful kinship so that he could establish a universal Confucian I lordship. Similarly, Indian political thought put the state not under the service of human as citizens, but under the service I loft God according to Buddhist belief (Weeper 1-2). I I Eastern thought has naturally a pre-given acceptance of the reality mainly based on the value of the religious dogmas.
Both in I Linda, China, Persian or other Eastern political thought at that time, there was a God at the higher rank and the political I leatheriest in world were under the service of that authority. As an shot of that a priority given understanding of cosmos, a I Collective culture has developed. This kind of culture stimulate man not to quest but to obey, not to understand mentally, but I Tit feel by heart, not to seek for a better alternative but to maintain as satisfied with what was given.
The Features of Greek Thought in General I However, the basic characteristics to the Ancient Greek was to understand what was, and how it was created. The philosophers of I That time questioned the available knowledge on realty and seek to find a satisfied answer to their intellectual interest. I I Thales, Misbranded, Pythagoras, Heraclites, Paradises were some of the philosophers wondered about the creation of universe I land life. These philosophers took the reason, as the most useful tool by which can be better understood.
These philosophers, in I alfalfa, found some answers as a result of their search that even today are more-or-less appealed. Aristotle’ logic is still alive I line modern world. In short, one of the basic characteristics of the Ancient Greek was to criticism everything, even themselves. I I The problems tried to be solved by philosophers of the Ancient Greek were firstly cosmos and then men. They firstly wondered howl Cosmos t;name to existence. Then in particular beginning with the period of “human philosophy’ they concentrated on human.
They I Mainly took human not as passive subject to political authority, but as the ultimate authority that political institutions must I Serve to them. The scope of all investigations was the study of what man should be and what he should pursue. Moreover, they I I investigated by meaner of which institutions we can create a more wealthy society. In short, other nations, it has been said, I longsighted gods, kings, spirits, but Greeks investigated men (Weeper 3-4). I Twit great interest in men Greeks were critical in their political culture.
They sought for the right to think their own I I thoughts, the rights to think publicly, to act according to their own consciousness without throbbing the rights of others. I I According to that political culture the chief contribution of a man to his nation is through the process that he develops his I Personality. To them if every men developed on the basis of virtue then the nation. In short, the Greek political culture I I constituted a ground on the basis of which a passionate belief in reason and in investigation developed.
This political culture I also created a humanist political philosophy. Religion and Mythology I I Len Greek mythology there were mainly three worlds: the world of gods, the world of nature and the world of man. Greeks dealt I I firstly with the world of gods through Homeric poems etc. The next stage is the effort to deal with the world of I I Beginning from Thales this was the basic quest for philosophers. Nature. Socrates and other philosophers started the period of men. I Ancient Greeks had a politest religion, which meant that there were a lot of different belief systems. The common religious I
I life told through Homeric poems was that Greeks believed different immortal gods. Each god represented and controlled a natural I Power or a social institution. Zeus, Poseidon, Demeter, Hear and Hades were some of the commonly shared gods. Zeus controlled I Lethe sky, Poseidon controlled the corners, Demeter controlled harvest and food, Hades controlled the underground, Hear controlled I Lethe marriage. According to the Homeric poems different gods were living on the top of the Olympus mountain under the control of I Sizes. The prevalent and common worship in Ancient Greek was to devote animals to their gods.
A different animal was devoted to I leach god: a bull was devoted to Zeus, while a pig to Demeter and a cow was devoted to Hear. In addition to the gods living I the top to the Olympus mountain there were a lot to groups to the gods living somewhere else according to Greeks. I I The Polis The city-state that Greeks were living was entitled as polis, a term which nominated a kind of political community. The I I population of polis was under ten thousands. Only three polis had more than 20 thousand citizens: Athens, Syracuse and Caracas. I I There were about one thousand and five hundred polis. Each polis was free and independent.
The population of some polis was I larboard 2 or 3 thousands. The birth control mechanisms like abortion was commonly used end mainly single-child family was desired I by citizens. There were no sanctions on birth control as well as on homosexuality in Greek. A polis with small population was nil algebra demanded. This is why Aristotle said that “ten men are too few for a city; a hundred thousand are too many’. I I Polis meant much more meaning for the Greek than the state as it is for us. Polis was identified with all human values. It was al Apart of his life and no Greeks could think themselves apart from a polis.
Greeks never found it sufficient to know a man’s name I land his father’s, they also required the name of his polis. It was not talked about Athens or Sparta but about Athenians and I Aspirations. In Greek literature to live meant to take part in polis life. The polis was everything in Greeks’ life; it was I Church, university, state etc. There was an organic understanding of the polis, which meant the unity of citizens, and their I Polis. Political Culture In Ancient Greek since the life of citizens were limited with the boundaries of city state the common life of city standee over I lever thing in citizens’ life.