BCM432 INFORMATION COMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY HISTORY OF DATA STORAGE GmanJye 2013 GmanJye 11/04/2013 Definition of Data Storage * * Storage Devices are the data storage devices that are used in the computers to store the data. The computer has many types of data storage devices. Some of them can be classified as the removable data Storage Devices and the others as the non removable data Storage Devices. * * Data storage can refer to anything with information recorded on it.
Using this broad definition, a hardback volume of an encyclopedia, an audio cassette of a pop song, and even a piece of paper with random words written on it would all be considered examples. The most popular definition of the term limits it to only the storage of information on computers and similar devices. The memory is of two types; one is the primary memory and the other one is the secondary memory. The primary memory is the volatile memory and the secondary memory is the non volatile memory. The volatile memory is the kind of the memory that is erasable and the non volatile memory is the one where in the contents cannot be erased.
Basically when we talk about the data storage devices it is generally assumed to be the secondary memory. The secondary memory is used to store the data permanently in the computer. The secondary storage devices are usually as follows: hard disk drives – this is the most common type of storage device that is used in almost all the computer systems. The other ones include the floppy disk drives, the CD ROM, and the DVD ROM. The flash memory, the USB data card etc. History of Data Storage * The earliest known form of data storage was punch cards which were created in 1725 by Basile Bouchon.
They had a perforated paper loop to store patterns which could be used on cloth. In 1846 Alexander Bain improved on this idea with the invention of punched tape which could hold significantly more data than their predecessor. * * With the invention of computers came the need for larger data storage methods. A device called a Selectron tube was developed by the RCA in 1946 which could store 4096 bits of information. A few years later magnetic tape was released as an improved way of storing data. This was then refined and placed in Compact Cassettes and VHS. Data Storage Evolution * * *
PRE HISTORY * Cahuvet – Point – d’Arc When caveman memories needed to be transferred quickly among each other they took to their walls of their abodes to record the data. Gambar 1 – Cahuvet ANCIENT HISTORY * Stone Tablet * Cave paintings had a critical point of failure in that they were unmovable. * Papyrus/Paper * While stone tablet had their heyday, carrying more than one proved problematic and dangerous for obvious reasons. Gambar 2 – Stone Tablet & Papyrus/Paper * 18th – 19th Century * Punch Card The punch card is a perforated paper loop used to store patterns rather than actual data.
In 1881, Herman Hollerith, who would later form IBM, designed a paper punch machine to tabulate census date. It had taken the U. S. Census Bureau eight years to complete the 1880 census, but thanks to Hollerith’s invention, that time was reduced to just one year. * Filling Cabinet In 1898, the first filling cabinet was used at insurance firm, it is an early form of multi-file compression storage. Gambar 3 – Punch Card;amp;Filling Cabinet 20th Century * Magnetic Tape Introduced in the 1950s, magnetic tape is a revolution in the broadcast and recording industries.
Made of magnetizable coating on a long, thin strip of plastic, magnetic tapes allowed unmatched amounts of data to be created, stored and rapidly accessed. Magnetic tape was the most popular means of storing data until the mid 1980s, since a single roll could store 1TB, or as much data as 10,000 punch cards. * Compact Cassette The Compact Cassette was introduced by Philips in 1963 as a type of magnetic tape, although it didn’t gain popularity until the 1970s. A typical 90-minute cassette could store close to 700kB to 1MB of data per side of the tape.
Compact Cassettes were used to store data in a few computers and remained popular until the late 1980s. Gambar 5 – Magnetic Tape ;amp;Cassette * Floppy Disk The first floppy disk was introduced in 1969 and was a read-only 8 inch disk capable of storing 80kB of data. In 1973, a disk of the same size was created with a storage capacity of 256kB and the ability to write new data. Since then, floppy disks have been created smaller but with more data storage. The average capacity of a floppy disk is around 1. 44MB. * Hard Drive The first hard drive, unveiled by IBM in 1956, was a revolution in data storage, capable of reserving up to 4. MB. The 305 RAMAC stored its data on 50 24 inch magnetic disks. Since the introduction of the 305 RAMAC, hard drives have been under constant improvement. The first hard disk drive stored roughly 120,000 times more data than IBM’s RAMAC at 500GB. Today, hard drives are smaller, cheaper, faster and can store more data. Gambar 7 – Floppy Disk ;amp;Hard Drive * Compact Disc (CD) The compact disc (CD) is smaller and stores less data. CDs were developed by SONY and Philips in 1979 and arrived at market in 1982. They were originally created exclusively to store sound recordings but have evolved to encompass data storage.
Today, a standard CD can store 700MB of data. * Digital Video/Versatile Disc (DVD) The Digital Versatile Disc, or Digital Video Disc (DVD) is essentially a CD that uses a different kind of laser technology. Rather than red light, a DVD laser uses a shorter infrared light to store more data on the same amount of space as a CD. Invented by Philips, SONY, Toshiba and Panasonic in 1995, Dual-layer DVDs are capable of storing 8. 5GB of data. Gambar 9–CD;amp;DVD * Flash Drive Arch nemesis of the floppy disk, the flash drive has become one of the most efficient and significant innovations in data storage.
This device, introduced in 2000, offers the capability to boot from a USB key, the ability to update a system BIOS and a storage capacity of 8MB. Some flash drives, however, are known to store as much as 256GB, and today’s models come in a host of fun shapes. * Blu-Ray Blu-ray was first introduced in 2002 but not finalized until 2006. Like DVDs, Blu-ray discs use shorter blue laser wavelengths to store more data. Blu-ray can store much more than a CD or DVD, with a capacity of up to 25GB on a single-layer disc and twice that amount on a dual-layer disc. Although Blu-ray is expensive, studios are backing the disc exclusively.
Gambar 11 – USB Flash Drive;amp;Blu-Ray * 21st Century * Cloud Storage Cloud storage is a model of networked online storage where data is stored in virtualized pools of storage which are generally hosted by third parties. Hosting companies operate large data centers, and people who require their data to be hosted buy or lease storage capacity from them. The data center operators, in the background, virtualize the resources according to the requirements of the customer and expose them as storage pools, which the customers can themselves use to store files or data objects. Solid State Drive (SSDs) A solid-state drive (SSD) (also known as a solid-state disk or electronic disk, though it contains no actual “disk” of any kind) is a data storage device using integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently. SSD technology uses electronic interfaces compatible with traditional block input/output (I/O) hard disk drives. Gambar 13 – Cloud Storage ;amp;SSDs * * Referrence * http://cs-exhibitions. uni-klu. ac. at/index. php? id=372 * http://mozy. com/assets/950/Mozy-History-Data-Storage. png *