Disaster means a suddenaccident or a natural catastrophe that causes great damage or loss of life.There are two ways of disaster they are DIS and ASTER. DIS mean destruction andASTER mean like star. There are some disaster you can see and some disaster youcannot see. The disaster you can see is natural disaster and human madedisaster. There are some natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, and othergeologic processes. a flood can cause after a longer time heavy rained thereare many types of floods which flows under 3main categories they are overflow, urbanization and accumulations all these can cause flood.
Flooding causedamage to the environment, infrastructure, economy and property. An enexpectedmovement of earth called earthquake when two parts of earth move suddenly inrelation to each other along a fault line due to tectonic forces and earthquakeoccurs a tremendous amount of energy is released in the foam of tremors andvibration such earthquakes are called tectonic earthquake the point of originof an earthquake is called the forcouse while the point directly about it onthe surface of the earth is called a epicenter owing to the stronger vibrationaround the point of origin the degree of destruction is greater of theepicenter the branch of knowledge that deals with the study of earthquake iscalled seismology and the experts who study about the seismic waves are called seismologists.in 479 BC,when the soldiers besieged the Greek city of portidaea,the tide retestedmuch farther than usual, leaving a convenient invention route us this wasn’t a stroke of luck. Before they had closed halfway,the water returned in waves higher than anyone had ever seen, drowning theattackers. The postdates believed they had been saved by the wreath ofposidon.
but really saved them was likely the same phomeonen that has destroyed countlessothers: a TSUNAMI. Although tsunami is commonly known as tidal waves, they actuallyunrelated to the tidal active caused by the gravitytational forces of the sunand moon. In many ways, tsunamis are just larger version of regular waves. Theyhave crest, and a consist not of moving water, but the movement of energythrough water. The difference where this energy comes from. For normal oceanwaves it comes from wind.becouse this only affects the surface the wave arelimited in size and speed.
but tsunamis are coursed by energy originating underwater,from galvanic eruption , summery in land side or most commonly an earthquake onthe ocean floor coursed when the tectonic plates of the earth’s surface slip,releasing a massive amount of energy into the water. This energy travels up tothe surface disliking water and raising it above the normal sea level butgravity pulls it back down which makes the energy ripple outwards horizontally.(The Earth is a terrestrial planet consisting of a crust, mantle, molten outercore, and solid inner core.
The Earth’s crust is rich in silicon, aluminum, andother elements less massive than iron. Most of the Earth’s iron and heavierelements are located in the mantle and core. The crust extends about 40 milesbelow the continents but only 10 miles underneath the ocean basins. Strange asit may seem, the crust comprises only 1% of our planet’s mass; the mantle andcore constitute the other 99%.To put it inperspective, if the Earth were the size of a peach, the crust would correspondto the skin of the peach. The fruit and pit correspond to the mantle and core,respectively. The mantle consists of semisolid igneous rock that graduallybecomes entirely liquid closer to the core. Small amounts of mantle are ejectedduring volcanic eruptions, given that the roots of volcanoes often extend 100miles or more below the Earth’s surface.
The outer core is thought to be madeup of molten iron, nickel, and other metals. The inner core is an extremelydense metallic ball. Even though the inner core is hotter than the outer core,it remains solid due to its high density as well as the immense pressureexerted on it by the surrounding mantle and outer core. All geologicalprocesses that occur below the Earth’s surface are driven, directly orindirectly, by heat released from the Earth’s core.
According to geologists,most of the intense heat in the Earth’s interior was produced by the accretionof the planet over 4 billion years ago. The remainder is produced by thecontinuous decay of radioactive elements. As with other bodies, the Earth’sheat is dissipated by three mechanisms: radiation, conduction, and, mostimportantly, convection. Briefly, radiation means the transmission of heat intosurrounding space. This is the way Earth receives solar energy.
Conductionmeans the transfer of heat from one object to another by direct contact. Forexample, a metal spoon placed in a cup of hot coffee will gradually becomehot to the touch. Finally, convection refers to heat transfer by means ofdirectly moving hot matter to a cooler region, as with a convectionoven. The most well understood example of geologic convection isvolcanism, discussed next.
Volcanism: Hot Spots and Seduction ZonesHot spot volcanoes result from the upwelling of magma plumes from the Earth’smantle, which penetrate through the crust and ultimately burst through thesurface to form a volcano. These hot spots are scattered across the continentsand ocean basins. They include Yellowstone National Park (located atop acaldera volcano), the Galapagos, the Hawaiian Islands, and other volcanic peaksin Africa, the Arabian peninsula, Indonesia, Siberia, Antarctica, andelsewhere.Subduction zone volcanism occurs at regions where the ocean floor divesunderneath an adjacent area of thick continental crust.
As the oceanic crustmelts into the underlying mantle, magma chambers are produced, resulting inchains of volcanoes. Examples of seduction zone volcanism include the AleutianIslands off Alaska, Crater Lake, and Mt. St.
Helens. Many volcanoes around thePacific Ocean, the so called Ring of Fire, were produced by seduction zone volcanism.In addition to volcanism, convection in the Earth’s mantle is responsiblefor earthquakes and tsunamis.EarthquakesThe Earth’s lithosphere (crust andupper mantle) is fractured into 15 major tectonic plates, as shown on thediagram.
Heat circulating in the Earth’s mantle is believed to drive themovement of tectonic plates. Although the plates are moving at approximatelyone inch per year, this accounts for the rearrangement of Earth’s continentsover vast spans of geologic time. At their boundaries, tectonic plates collide,spread apart, or move in parallel but opposite directions to each other. As aresult of these movements, most earthquakes occur at tectonic plate boundaries.Seismic activity is a continuous phenomenon. Earthquakes strong enough to befelt, however, occur at intervals of months or years.
TsunamisTsunamis arecaused by undersea earthquakes. When large areas of ocean floor are suddenlysink or are thrust up by tectonic plate movements, the result is a massiveripple effect below the ocean’s surface. In the open ocean, these waves may beundetectable without special monitoring equipment.
As these waves approachislands and continental shelves, however, they gain amplitude quickly, withcrests approaching 50 feet. When these waves crash onshore, they can devastatecoastal regions, with death tolls in the hundreds of thousands, as happened inthe December 2004 Indonesian tsunami.)”This all proof by the scientificresearch of actforlibraries”they mention this that all there are true. humanmade disasters are Hazardous materials, Powerservice disruption & blackout, Radiological emergencies, Chemical threat and biological weapons, Cyber attacks,Explosion,Civil unrest.
there are some naturaldisaster that humans cannot see like personal anguish like death of mother orfather ,loss of scholarship and rejection of jobs and etc. (Human-made disasteris disaster resulting from man-made hazards as opposed to natural disastersresulting from natural hazards. It means a disaster or emergency situation thatresult in civilian population’s casualties, loss of property, loss of basicservices, and means of livelihood as a result of war or civil strife. The causeof a human-made disaster can be either intentional or unintentional humanactions.
Human-made disasters or emergencies can be fast or of slow attack.Human-made disaster admits that all disasters are caused by humans. Human-madedisaster involves an element of human intent, negligence, or error; orinvolving a failure of a man-made system. It is also called as man-madedisaster.)”ties is proofed by the USLEGA”.
a naturaldisaster can cause loss of life or property damage like loss of house, childrenand jobs etc.disasters can omen anytimes, when disaster comes the comity ofnews they will give us warning when they give us warnings then we should listento the news all the times amen to safe keep all your expensive things if u havea upper flow if not give and keepall the things who have a upper flow to safe and keep a first aid box with you.In that time don’t go out or don’t send anyone out make sure all your thingsare safe and off all the electricity current off and main power off .seal allthe Ares which the way water can come inside the house by putting some tapesand seal with rubbers and clothes for safety of water. Every mint keeps contactwith all your family and nabours.
BE SAFTY AS MUCH YOU CAN BE SAFE.