Human biology The Lymphatic System Essay

The purpose of this exercise is to do various thing like; be able to name the components of the Lymphatic System, describe the formation and composition of lymph, relate the function of the lymphatic system to that of the cardiovascular system, describe structure and function of lymph nodes, T-Cells, a-cells & Macrophages, able to differentiate between an antigen and an antibody, and perform an antigen-antibody test and interpret the results.

Exercise 1 : Microscopic Anatomy of Lymphatic Structures Observations: Sketch of Reticular Connective Tissue Slide (Lymph Node). Describe the structures you observed on the slide Sketch of Spleen Slide: Describe the structures you observed on the slide Sketch of Tonsil Slide: Describe the structures you observed on the slide Sketch of Thymus Slide: Describe the structures you observed on the slide Questions: A. How are lymph, lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes related? The lymphatic vessel transports the lymph back to the blood supply or the lymph nodes. The lymph nodes are sometimes found through the system of vessels.

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They are the filter of the lymph B. What are the two major functions of the lymph nodes? They help to fight infection by filtering the lymph, and catching the debris or cells of the lymph. C. What are the two functions of the spleen? One function of the spleen is to help the immune system and blood supply by fighting infections, and the other is help filter the body. D. What is the function of the tonsils? The tonsils are used to capture the bacteria or germs that you would breath in on a daily basis. E. What are the structural similarities found in lymph nodes, spleen and onions?

They are all round in size, and they all have a capsule. Also they are placed all in the right places to help filter the body. Exercise 2: Immunity and the Immune Response Describe what happened to the red and green food coloring after 45 minutes: Which sera was an antigen in section 2 of the dish? Describe what you observed in section 2 of the dish. Which sera was the antigen in the “unknown” sample used in section 3 of the dish? Describe what you observed in section 3 of the dish. A. Explain what is meant by “memory’ as a characteristic of the immune response.

This is when the body protects itself from infections by remembering the infection. If you got it once then it remember how you fought it the first time so that you can do it again. B. How does our immune response distinguish between our own cells and foreign invaders? Lymphocytes run through the blood stream, they identify and then protect against them. There are T cells and B cells, the t cells are what acts to help kill the infection, and the B cells are the what produces certain antibodies to know who are the invaders. C. What are lymphocytes and where are they produced? Impeaches are in bone marrow and run through the bloodstream, watching all areas of the body to recognize and protect against foreign invaders D. Distinguish between an antigen and an antibody. Antigen are anything that can trigger the immune response And antibody are what recognizes the antigens. E. Why is the term “immune system” a misnomer? It is a misnomer because it is not really a system, and it protects the body from infection Conclusion: Look up information on autoimmune diseases. What are they? Give examples and explain how they help researchers better understand the immune response.


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