The effect of temperature on the activity of pectin’s on Malls Domesticate Statement:- To investigate the rate of reaction of pectin’s affected by temperature on its substrate Malls domesticate by extracting Juice. Background information:- Enzymes are specifically designed or specialized to break down a substrate, likewise pectin’s is used for extraction of fruit Juice as pectin’s is especially used for the breakdown of pectin.
Enzymes are a catalyst, they speed up the chemical reaction of breaking down their specific substrate depending on which enzyme it is. They are a essential part of the digestion system as, if they did not exist it would take forever to break down nutrients and convert them into energy. (Assortment, http://www. Assortment. Com/enzymes-work-39111 . HTML, 14/06/12) As pectin’s is most effective in extracting Juice from purrГ©e I am going to use applesauce as a substrate.
All enzymes have an optimum temperature, enzymes that originate from the warm blooded animals usually have an optimum temperature of ICC, where they work beset at. Pectin’s similarly has a optimum temperature not far off warm blooded animal enzyme’s optimum temperature being from around 5-ICC, thus changing the temperature will change the rate of reaction in some way. Therefore I have chosen to research on this topic. (Wisped, http://en. Wisped. Org/ wick/Pectin’s#Optimum_environment, 13/06/12) (Bite size Bio, http:// bittersweet. Mom/articles/why-do-enzymes-have-optimal-temperatures/, 13/06/12) Reason for investigation and variables I predict that the factor effecting the rate of the reaction of pectin’s on its substrate Malls domesticate is the temperature that I will be changing throughout the experiment. Therefore the independent variable will be the temperature of the water tats or the ice baths (00. 1 co), whereas the dependent variable will be the amount of pectin’s and substrate Malls domesticate (00. Ml) extracted in the measuring cylinder. Variables Possible impacts How is it controlled?
The concentration of the pectin’s They are going to determine how quick and slow the rate of reaction is going to be regardless of the temperature. It is controlled by using the same sample of Pectin’s enzymes where it will be diluted with water to 1% concentration. The mass of apple sauce (Malls domesticate) used. They are going to determine the amount of fruit Juice extracted, as when more apple sauce is used it is likely that there are more Juice available to extract thus giving unreliable results t is going to be controlled by using a syringe and precisely measuring to make sure it is touching the ml line.
Length of time the test tube will stay in the water bath/ice bath They will impact the amount of Juice extracted as when the test tube is left in the water bath/ice bath for longer, it has more potential time to extract more Juice. It will be controlled using a stopwatch, ensuring that we time for minis with the possibility of a little inaccuracy of milliseconds. The number of repeats The number of times the experiment is repeated will make the collected data more reliable. Setting 5 times for the experiment to be repeated at each temperature will control this.
The volume of pectin’s dilutions used The volume of pectin’s dilutions used will affect the Juice extraction process immensely as the enzyme is a catalyst that speeds up the reaction. Therefore we will use a measuring cylinder, ensuring that the air bubble reaches Just above the measurement of ml. Hypothesis: I predict that the rate of reaction of pectin’s on its substrate Malls majestic will be fastest at ICC and ICC as it is known as the optimum temperature for enzymatic reactions to occur at.
The results will be collected using a table then presented in a graph with standard deviation bars to see the significance or reliability of the data collected. This graph will also give us a visual interpretation of how the rate of reaction of the pectin’s was acted. Ate There will no need to be using the butter rate as the pH to the apple sauce will keep the pH of the solution constant. Safety & ethics Why need? Goggles should be used. Pectin’s is a very strong enzyme and it can damage the eyes especially, it may give short-term side effects and long term side effects by damaging your sight.
Be careful hen handling test tubes in the hot water bath Add high temperatures like ICC, you need to ensure that you don’t dip your hands in the water bath, in case of any possibilities of burns Tie up hair In case of any disruptions by antibodies entering the apparatus used in the experiment. Citations http://www. Stewarded. Com/what-is-pectin’s. HTML http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Pectin’s#Optimum_environment http://www. Assortment. Com/enzymes-work-39111 . HTML The data collection process to investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction of pectin’s on its substrate Malls domesticate.