In the tribal context

In the tribal context, the establishment of big industries and construction of big dams in the past did not benefit the local tribes significantly. Instead, the small-scale welfare schemes pertaining to family welfare, capacity building, income generation, health, education, and social justice have made a significant contribution in improving the overall conditions of the tribe. The ideal form of tribal development is, therefore, more appropriately identified as non-industrial but pro-local, one which intends to make local resources and environment more congenial, providing for a stable livelihood for the tribes. Many such schemes have been implemented by the government or voluntary organizations in tribal areas.
There were three schemes to direct the tribal development. The first scheme was the Juang Development Agency (JDA-1970), which is constituted for the development of primitive tribes, Juang, in Keonjhar district of Orissa. The tribe was completely dependent on shifting cultivation, hunting and food gathering. The scheme had major achievements in both health and economic areas. It issued health cards to every family and medical professionals and made monthly house calls to examine the health of the family members. It made them economically self-sufficient through the support of cooperatives in their areas and also bought necessary items like kerosene, salt, sugar, rice and cloth.
The second scheme is the Bonda Development Agency (BDA) implemented in the 1970s for development of the primitive tribe, Bonda that lived on the hilltops of Koraput district in Orissa. The community had been leading a closed life, which may be characterized as a domestic community. After the BDA


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