1. 0 ) Introduction
The industrialized edifice system ( IBS ) can be by and large interpreted as in which all edifice constituents such as floors. walls. columns. beams. and roofs are mass produced either in a mill or at site mill harmonizing to specifications with standardize forms and dimensions and transported to the building undertakings site to be assembled into a construction with minimum site wet work and erected on the site decently joined to organize the concluding units. The development of industrialized edifice system ( IBS ) is non new in the building industry.
The thought of industrialised edifice system ( IBS ) has received much attending in the devastated states after the Second World War. Though. Malaysia did non endure the impact of the war. the demand to provide its population with low-cost and quality houses has prompted the authorities to advance the usage of IBS as an option to conventional edifice system.
2. 0 ) Definition OF IBS
There are a few definitions by research workers and experts in this field which can be found through literature. Rahman and Omar ( 2006 ) defined IBS as a building system that is built utilizing pre-fabricated constituents. The fabrication of the constituents is consistently done utilizing machine. formworks and other signifiers of mechanical equipment. IBS is defined as merchandises. systems and techniques used in doing building less labour -oriented. faster every bit good as quality controlled. It by and large involves pre fabricated merchandises. mill manufactured elements that transported to the building sites and erected. ( Shaari. Bulletin Ingenieur. 2003 ) . Harmonizing to Abraham Warszawski ( 1999 ) . IBS is defined as a set of component or constituent which is inter-related towards assisting the execution of building plant activities. He besides expounded that an industrialization procedure is an investing in equipment. installations. and engineering with the aim of maximizing production end product. understating labour resource. and bettering quality while a edifice system is defined as a set of interrelated component that joint together to enable the designated public presentation of a edifice.
Trikha ( 1999 ) defined IBS as a system in which concrete constituents prefabricated at site or in mill are assembly to organize the construction with lower limit in situ building. Esa and Nuruddin ( 1998 ) asserted that IBS is a continuum get downing from using craftsmen for every facet of building to a system that make usage of fabricating production in order to understate resource wastage and enhance value for terminal users. Possibly the most comprehensive definition of IBS was clarified by Junid ( 1986 ) . He mentioned that IBS in the building industry includes the industrialised procedure by which constituents of a edifice are conceived. planned. fabricated. transported and erected on site. The system includes a balanced combination between the package and hardware constituents. A building technique in which constituents are manufactured in a controlled environment ( on or off site ) . transported. positioned and assembled into a construction with minimum extra site plants ( CIDB. 2003a ) .
3. 0 ) TYPES OF IBS
Warszawski ( 1999 ) asserted that the edifice system could be classified apathetic ways. depending on the peculiar involvement of their users or manufacturers. Such categorization usage building engineering as a footing for sorting different constructing systems. In this mode four major groups can be distinguished viz. . system with ( 1 ) lumber. ( 2 ) steel. ( 3 ) dramatis personae in situ concrete. and ( 4 ) precast concrete as their chief structural and infinite enclosure stuffs. These systems can be farther classified harmonizing to the geometrical constellation of their chief framing constituents as follows ( 1 ) linear or skeleton ( beams and columns ) system. ( 2 ) planar or panel systems. and ( 3 ) three dimensional or box systems. Harmonizing to Badir- Razali. by and large. there are four types of constructing systems presently available in Malaysia’s edifice system categorization ( Badir et al. 1998 ) . namely conventional. cast unmoved. prefabricated and composite edifice systems. Each edifice system is represented by its several building method which is further characterised by its building engineering. functional and geometrical constellation.
1. Precast Concrete Framing. Panel and Box Systems
Precast columns. beams. slabs. 3-D constituents ( balconies. stairwaies. lavatories. lift Chamberss ) . lasting concrete formwork. etc ;
Figure 1. 1 -Precast concrete wall
2. Steel Formwork Systems
Tunnel signifiers. beams and columns modeling signifiers. lasting steel formworks ( metal decks. etc ;
Figure 1. 2 -Steel formwork system
3. Steel Framing Systems
Steel beams and columns. portal frames. roof trusses. etc ;
Figure 1. 4 -Steel roof trusses
4. Prefabricated Timber Framing Systems
Timber frames. roof trusses. etc ;
Figure 1. 5 -Prefabricated lumber framing system for a dual floor house.
5. Block Work Systems
Interlocking concrete masonry units ( CMU ) . lightweight concreteblocks. etc.
Figure 1. 6 -Lightweight concrete blocks are used for wall building
The pre-cast concrete constituents are among the most common prefabricated elements that are available both locally and abroad. The pre-cast concrete elements are concrete merchandises that are manufactured and cured in a works environment and so transported to a occupation site for installing. The elements are columns. beams. slabs. walls. 3-D elements ( balconies. stairway. lavatories. and lift Chamberss ) . lasting concrete formwork and etc. The steel formwork is prefabricated in the mill and so installed on site. However the steel support and services conduit are installed on site before the steel formwork are installed. The installing of this formwork is easy by utilizing simple brace system. Then concrete is poured into the formwork and after seven yearss. the formwork can be removed and there is some system where by the formwork served as a portion of the construction itself after concreting. The steel formwork systems are used in tunnel signifiers. beams. column modeling signifiers and lasting steel formworks.
The elements of steel framing system are rolled into the specific sizes and so the elements are fabricated that involves cutting. boring. changeable blasting. welding and picture. Fabricated elements are sent to the building site to be so erected whereby welding and the tightening of bolts at articulations are conducted. The elements include steel beams and columns. portal frames and roof trusses. The prefabricated lumber framing system is usually used in the conventional roof truss and lumber frames. The lumber is prefabricated by fall ining the members of the truss by utilizing steel home base. It is of import that all members are treated with the anti pest chemical. Then. the installing is done on site by linking the prefabricated roof truss to the support of the roof beams. The elements of block work system include meshing concrete masonry units ( CMU ) and lightweight concrete blocks.
4. 0 ) CHARACTERISTICS OF IBS
4. 1 Closed System
A closed system can be classified into two classs. viz. production based on client’s design and production based on pre caster’s design. The first class is designed to run into a spacial demand of the client’s. that is the infinites required for assorted maps in the edifice every bit good as the specific architectural design. In this case. the client’s demands are paramount and the pre caster is ever forced to bring forth a specific constituent for a edifice. On the other manus. the production based on precaster’s design includes designing and bring forthing a unvarying type of edifice or a group of edifice discrepancies. which can be produced with a common mixtures of constituent. Such edifice includes school. parking garage. gas station. low cost lodging. etc.
However these types of edifice agreement can be justified economically merely when the undermentioned fortunes are observed ( Warszawski. 1999 ) . a ) The size of undertaking is big plenty to let for distribution of design and production costs over the excess cost per constituent incur due to the specific design. B ) The architectural design observes big insistent component and standardization. In regard to this. a fresh prefabrication system can get the better of the demand of many standardized elements by automatizing the design and production procedure. degree Celsius ) There is a sufficient demand for a typical type of edifice such as school so that a mass production can be obtained.
4. 2 Open System
In position of the restrictions inherent in the closed system. an unfastened system which allows greater flexibleness of design and maximal coordination between the interior decorator and precaster has been proposed. This system is plausible because it let the precaster to bring forth a limited figure of elements with a preset scope of merchandise and at the same clip keeping architectural aesthetic value.
4. 3 Modular Coordination
Modular co-ordination is a coordinated incorporate system for dimensioning infinites. constituents. suiting. etc. so that all elements fit together without cutting or widening even when the constituents and adjustments are manufactured by different providers ( Trikha. 1999 ) .
The aims of modular co-ordination are:
a ) to make a footing upon which the assortment of types and sizes of edifice constituents can be minimized. Through a rationalised method of building. each constituent is designed to be interchangeable with other similar 1s and therefore. supply a maximal grade of freedom and pick offered to the interior decorator. This can besides be accomplished by following a comparatively big basic measuring unit ( basic faculty ) and by restricting the dimensions of edifice constituents to a recommended preferable sizes ( Warszawski. 1999 ) . B ) to let for easy acceptance of prefabricated constituents to any layout and for their exchangeability within the edifice. This is achieved by specifying the location of each constituent in the edifice with mention to a common modular grid instead than with a mention to other constituents ( Warszawski. 1999 ) .
4. 4 Standardization and Tolerances
For carry throughing the demand of modular co-ordination. all constituents need to be standardised for production. Such standardization of infinite and elements need ordering tolerances at different building phases such as manufactured tolerances. puting out tolerances. and hard-on tolerances. so that the combined tolerance obtained on statistical considerations is within the permitted bounds ( Trikha. 1999 ) . Production resources can be used in the most efficient mode if the end product is standardised. Then the production procedure. machinery. and workers’ preparation can be best absorbed to the peculiar features of the merchandise.
4. 5 Mass Production
The investing in equipment. human resorts. and installations associated with an industrialization can be justified economically merely when big production volume is observed. Such volume provides a distribution of the fixed investing charge over a big figure of merchandise units without unduly blow uping their ultimate cost ( CIDB Singapore. 1992 ) .
4. 6 Specialization
Large production end product and standardization of precast elements allow a high grade of labour specialization with the production procedure. The procedure can be subdivided into a big figure of little homogeneous undertakings. In such on the job status. workers are exposed to their work repetitiously with higher productiveness degree ( Warszawski. 1999 ) .
4. 7 Good Administration
High production volume. specialization of work. and centralization of production requires a efficient and experiences administration capable of a high degree of planning. organizing. coordination and controlfunction with regard to production and distribution of the merchandises ( Warszawski. 1999 ) .
4. 8 Integration
In order to obtain an optimum consequence. a high grade of coordination must be between assorted relevant parties such as interior decorator. maker. proprietor. and contractor. This is achieved through an incorporate system in which all these maps are performed under a incorporate authorization ( Warszawski. 1999 )
4. 9 Production Facility
The initial capital investing for puting up a lasting factor is comparatively experience. Plant. equipment. skilled worker. direction resources need to be acquired before production can be commenced. Such immense investing can merely be breakeven if there is sufficiently demand for the merchandises. On the other manus. a impermanent casting pace or mill can be established at the undertaking site in order to understate the transit costs ( Peng. 1986 ) .
4. 10 Transportation system
It is found that projecting of large-panel system can cut down labor cost up to 30 per centum. However. these cost nest eggs are partly offset by the transit costs. The transit of big panels is besides capable to the country’s route section demand. These restrictions must be taken into consideration when following a prefabrication system ( Peng. 1986 ) .
4. 11 Equipment at Site
For the intent of raising and piecing precast panels into their place. heavy Crane is required particularly for multi-storey edifice. It is hence of import to integrate this extra cost when following a prefabrication system ( warszawski. 1999 ) .
5. 0 ) Advantage OF ( IBS )
1- High quality and good credence
• High quality-controlled merchandises due to command environment in mill. better material choice and utilizing high mechanized engineering. • Skilled workers with specific range of plants better efficiencies and cut down mistakes. 2- Cost
• Reducing on-site workers significantly cut downing labour cost for contractors. • Minimizing cost of reassigning waste stuff couple to quality control and cut downing waste stuff. 3- Time
• Faster completion of undertakings due to progress off-site readyings and simplified installing procedure. • Manageable building agenda by the usage of be aftering control. estimated lead clip and forecasted down clip.
6. 0 ) Disadvantage OF ( IBS )
* IBS is non interesting and popular among interior decorators.
* Lack of apprehension of among interior decorators. client and contractors. * Slow acceptance among contractors with the available systems and high grade of accomplishments. mechanism. coordination and logistic for transit and hard-on of the system. * The opportunities of procuring a uninterrupted undertaking from authorities concerns the contractor in term of hard currency flow where the interruption event point after puting on IBS system.
7. 0 ) Decision
Industrialized Building Systems ( IBS ) or off-site building has been introduced to get by with a turning demand of low-cost lodging. work outing issues associated with foreign workers and bettering image. quality and productiveness of building related services in Malaysia. The intent of this study is to garner information on IBS edifices in Malaysia. Besides that. a ocular review survey was besides conducted to detect of any jobs related to IBS system. IBS features possible building system for the hereafter with accent on quality. higher productiveness and less labour intensifier.
Besides the purpose of bit by bit cut downing the dependence on foreign labour and salvaging the country’s loss in foreign exchange. IBS provides the chance for the participants in the building industry to project a new image of the industry to be at par with other manufacturing-based industry such as the auto and electronic industries. The acceptance of IBS promises to promote every degree of the building industry to new highs and image of professionalism. Finally. IBS should be seen as the modern methods of building where modern and systematic methods of design. production planning and mechanised methods of fabrication and hard-on are applied.
8. 0 ) Mention
Badir. Y. F. . Kadir. M. R. A. and Hashim. A. H. ( 2002 ) Industrialise edifice systems building in Malaysia. Journal of Architectural Engineering. Vol. 8. No. 1. Badir. Y. F. . Kadir. M. R. A. and Ali. A. A. A ( 1998 ) Theory of categorization on Badir-Razali Building system categorization. Bulletin of Institute of Engineer. Malaysia. October. Bing. L. . Kwong. Y. W. . and Hao. K. J. ( 2001 ) Seismic behavior of connexion between precast concrete beams. CSE Research Bulletin. No. 14
Cheong. G. K. ( 1996 ) “The Bayshore Condominium prefabricated building. Precastech Newsletter On Line. Volume 7
Cheong. G. K. ( 1997 ) Fully precast system at Choa Chu Kang. Precastech Newsletter On Line. . Volume 8. CIDB Singapore ( 1992 ) Raising Singapore’s building productiveness. CIDB Construction Productivity Taskforce Report.
Din. H. ( 1984 ) Industrialised edifice and its application in Malaysia. Seminar on Prefabrication of Building Construction. Kuala Lumpur.
IEM ( 2001 ) A demand for new edifice engineerings. Bulletin of Institute of Engineer. Malaysia. February.