Today India is one among the top 10 industrial states of the universe. Industrial development has changed India’s economic system from under-developed position to developing position.
Industries can be classified into assorted types on the footing of their construction. The two chief types are: 1 ) Fabrication industries including heavy and light industries. 2 ) Small-scale and bungalow industries.
Manufacturing industries: Industries which are concerned with the processing or transition of natural stuffs into finished merchandises are called fabrication industries.
IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES:
1 ) Fabrication industries increase the national income and per capita income. Industrial development increases the employment chances to a big figure of people and therefore increases their income. 2 ) Industrial development solves the jobs of un-employment and under employment which are some of the major jobs of India. 3 ) Industrial development promotes agricultural development. Many industries are agro-based industries. Agricultural merchandises are natural stuffs for these industries. Development of these industries enables agribusiness to increase its production.
4 ) Industrial development helps to use the natural resources. such as mineral resources. H2O resources. forest resources and other natural resources. Use of these natural resources helps in the advancement 0f the state. 5 ) Many establishments belonging to the third sector are besides developed as a consequence of industrial development. e. g. Banking. instruction. insurance. conveyance and communicating.
6 ) Countries which depend merely on agribusiness have low criterion of life. But states which have developed both in agribusiness and industries have good balanced economic system.
7 ) Industrialization helps both the domestic and foreign trade of a state. Many goods. which we produce are exported to other states and assist us to gain foreign exchange. It besides reduces our dependance on foreign states for many goods.
8 ) Generally industries are located in towns and metropoliss. this enables the towns and metropoliss to go trade and cultural Centres.
9 ) Weaponries and ammo required for the defense mechanism of the state demand to be produced in the state itself. We can non depend on other states for these weaponries and ammo. Industries industry oilers. airplanes. explosives. guns. slugs and many other defense mechanism demands and therefore assist to beef up the defense mechanism of the state.
10 ) Increase of industries helps in the addition of income of the authorities because they pay revenue enhancements and responsibilities to thegovernment.
Facilities available for industrial development in India:
1 ) India has plentifulness of natural resources like woods. minerals. power resources. H2O resources etc. which are required for industrial development. 2 ) India has big human resource. which can supply inexpensive labor. The big population of India besides provides market for industrial merchandises. 3 ) India is an agricultural state. Agriculture provides natural stuffs for many industries and agribusiness is the main market for industrial merchandises.
Industrial development in India: Ancient India had made great advancement in industries. Industry of fabric. burlap bags. paper and other industries were good developed in India. Example: Muslin fabric of Dacca. chintzes of Masulipatnam. Calicos of Calicut and Gold embellishment of Surat. All these goods were manufactured in bungalow industries. During the British period all these industries suffered. The industrial policy of the British and the Industrial Revolution in England were the chief causes for the diminution of our industries. However few modern fabricating industries were started during the British period. Important among them were a cotton fabric factory at Bombay in 1854. a Jute factory in Calcutta in 1855 and another cotton fabric factory at Ahmedabad. A paper factory was started near Calcutta in 1867 and smelting of Fe ore at Kulti in West Bengal in 1870. Handiness of natural stuffs and inexpensive labor were responsible for the constitution of these industries. Our industrial advancement was really slow until the First World War. After the First World War. industries like Fe and steel. chemicals. sugar. cement and machine tools were started. After Independence. our industries made great advancement. The Five Year Plans were started for all-around economic development and today India occupies an of import topographic point in universe industrial development.
Factors for the location of Industries: The factors for the location of industries are handiness of natural stuffs. power resources. conveyance and communicating installations. skilled and unskilled labor. favorable clime. capital. H2O resources. market and Government policy. All these installations may non be found in one part. but a combination of these factors leads to the location of industries.
Industrial parts of India: Based on the factors mentioned above. four chief industrial parts are found in India. They are.
1 ) West Bengal. Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh
2 ) Maharashtra and Gujarat
3 ) Central Gangetic part
4 ) South India
Jharkhand. West Bengal and Chhattisgarh part: It is besides known as Damodar-Hooghli part. The part includes Chotanagpur tableland which has big sedimentations of minerals like Fe ore. coal. manganese. isinglass and bauxite. Port installations. power resources and handiness of inexpensive labor are the other factors.
Maharashtra – Gujarat part: It has extended cotton turning countries. There are good conveyance and port installations. hydro-electric power. labour force and installations for capital investing. Mumbai. Ahmedabad. Surat. Sholapur are noted for cotton industry.
Central Gangetic part: This part produces plentifulness of natural stuffs required for agro-based industries. The Plain part has made possible for the development of roads and railroads. High denseness of population has provided market and labour supply.
South India: The industries are spread over many towns and metropoliss of South India. Many types of industries have been developed. Availability of natural stuffs. hydro-electric power. market and labour force have helped the growing of many industries. Bangalore. Chennai. Coimbatore. Salem and Hyderabad are the of import industrial Centres.
IMPORTANT INDUSTRIESManufacturing industries are divided into two types on the footing of the natural stuffs that they use. They are
1 ) Agro-based industries
2 ) Mineral-based industries
1 ) AGRO-BASED Industry: The of import agro-based industries are cotton fabrics. jute. sugar and paper.
The first cotton fabric factory on modern lines was started in Bombay in 1854. Later. Millss were started at Ahmedabad in 1858. so in Kanpur. Nagpur. Sholapur. Surat and other topographic points. Today India holds the 3rd topographic point among the cotton fabric bring forthing states of the universe. It provides mployment to a big figure of people and besides helps to gain foreign exchange. Gujarat and Maharashtra provinces. lead the state in cotton fabric production. Mumbai and Ahmedabad are the of import Centres. Mumbai has the largest figure of cotton fabric Millss. It is the chief cotton fabric Centre in India. Mumbai is called cottonopolis or Manchester of India. ( Manchester is the chief cotton fabric Centre in England ) The other of import Centres of cotton fabrics are Nagpur and Sholapur in Maharashtra. Kolkata in West Bengal. Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh. Indore in Madhya Pradesh. Surat in Gujarat. Salem. Coimbatore and Chennai in Tamilnadu. Bangalore and Davangere in Karnataka and Delhi. Handloom industry
Handloom industry is concentrated in Tamilnadu. Andhra Pradesh. Assam and Uttar Pradesh. In recent old ages ready-made cotton garment industry has been developing fast and earns a good sum of foreign exchange. Cotton fabrics and ready-made garments are exported from India to foreign markets. Europe. the U. S. A. . and many states of Africa and Australia are our chief markets. Rough cotton fabric and cotton yarn are exported to Myanmar. Middle East. Thailand and other states.
Jute industry occupies an of import topographic point in the industrial advancement of India. It has provided employment to about 25 lakh workers. India produces 35 % of the entire jute merchandises of the universe. Its portion in gaining foreign exchange is besides of import. The first jute factory was started at Rishra near Kolkata in 1855. Bing an export oriented industry. it grew really fast. The divider of India struck a heavy blow to the jute industry. Most of the jute Millss remained in India and the jute turning countries went to East Pakistan ( Bangladesh ) . Now efforts have been made to turn jute in the Gangetic delta of West Bengal. in Assam. Uttar Pradesh. Bihar and Orissa. Jute Millss are mostly concentrated in lower Hooghly basin. The chief grounds for this concentration are handiness of natural jute. fresh H2O. inexpensive H2O conveyance. power resources. cheap labor. capital and port installations. In recent old ages. jute Millss have besides been located in Andhra Pradesh. Orissa. Uttar Pradesh. Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. The chief jute merchandises are gunny bags. jute fabric. tarpaulins. ropes and cordages ( required for overseas telegram industry ) . India exports jute merchandises to the U. S. A Britain. Canada. Argentina and Russia.
Sugar Industry: Sugar has been used in India since a really long clip. India produces White sugar. Khandsari and Gur or Jaggery. It provides employment to about 2. 5 lakh people in India and besides earns foreign exchange. Modern sugar Millss were started in 1931. Sugarcane. which is the natural stuff for sugar industry. is a perishable and weight losing natural stuff. The Sugar mills are located wherever sugar cane is grown. Sugar mills are concentrated in the Gangetic field ( Uttar Pradesh and Bihar ) . The other provinces where sugar mills are found are Maharashtra. Tamilnadu. Karnataka. Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The sugar cane of Peninsular India outputs more sugar than the North Indian sugar cane. There are 37 sugar mills in Karnataka. The territories of Mandya. Belgaum and Bellary have a big figure of sugar mills. Gorakhpur territories of Uttar Pradesh has the largest figure of sugar Millss and is called “Java of India” . India exports sugar to the U. S. A. Britain. Iran. Malaysia and Canada.
Paper fabrication had been carried on in India as a bungalow industry since ancient times. As a fabrication industry it was foremost started in 1867 at Bally near Kolkata. There were merely 15 paper Millss before independency. Softwood. bamboo. sabai grass. straw. bagasse. soft H2O and chemicals are the natural stuffs required for paper industry. Owing to really limited wood as natural stuffs. The chemicals required for paper industry are acerb sodium carbonate. sodium carbonate ash. Na sulfate. Cl and sulfuric acid. West Bengal has the largest figure of paper Millss in India. The grounds for it are. handiness of natural stuffs. coal and electricity. abundant supply of soft H2O. supply of capital and handiness of inexpensive labor. The of import Centres are Kolkata. Titagarh. Raniganj and Kakinada. In Karnataka the paper Millss are located at Dandeli. Bhadravathi. Mandya etc. Nepanagar in Madhya Pradesh is an of import manufacturer of newspaper. The production of paper in India is non sufficient to run into the demand. so big measures of paper are imported from other states.
MINERAL- BASED INDUSTRIES:
The of import mineral-based industries of India are Fe and steel. heavy technology and machinery. machine tools. conveyance equipment. chemicals. chemical fertilisers and cement industries.
Iron and steel industry:
Indians knew the art of smelting Fe ore since early times. Modern steel industry was foremost started at Kulti in West Bengal in 1874. But the existent beginning of Iron and Steel industry was made in 1907 at Jamshedpur in Bihar ( present Jharkhand ) by the Tatas. called Tata Iron and Steel Company ( TISCO ) . Again in 1919 a steel works was set up at Burnpur in West Bengal called Indian Iron and Steel Company ( ISCO ) and at Bhadravathi in Karnataka in 1923 called Mysore Iron and Steel Company ( MISCO ) . Now it is called Vishweswaraiah Iron and Steel Company ( VISCO ) . After Independence during the Second Five Year Plan period. three large Iron and Steel workss were established at Bhilai in Madhya Pradesh ( now in Chhattisgarh ) Rourkela in Orissa and Durgapur in West Bengal. During the Third Five Year Plan. a really large steel works was established at Bokaro in Bihar ( now in Jharkhand ) .
The 4th five twelvemonth program proposed to get down three more steel workss at Salem. Vijayanagar and Vishakhapatnam. The Salem and Vishakhapatnam steel workss have started production but Vijayanagar steel works was entrusted to the private sector and production is in the beginning phase. Tata Iron and Steel Company and Vijayanagar steel works are under the private sector. The others are under the public sector. To promote and widen Fe and steel industry under both private and public sectors. Steel Authority of India was established in 1973. All the natural stuffs required for Fe and steel industry like Fe ore. manganese. limestone and coal are bulky and weight-losing. So this industry is located near the parts where the natural stuffs are found in copiousness. The finished merchandises are besides heavy and need good conveyance system for their distribution. Iron and steel industry is concentrated around the Chotanagpur tableland which is rich in most of the natural stuffs required and hence Chotanagpur tableland is called the Rhur of India. ( Rhur part in Germany is noted for Fe and steel industry ) . India exports a big measure of steel and dramatis personae Fe to Britain. the U. S. A and Japan.
There was a clip when we were dependent on other states for assorted types of technology goods. Since Independence great advancement has been achieved in this field and now we manufacture machinery required to fabricate goods. A heavy technology works is established at Ranchi in Jharkhand. which manufactures assorted machines required by us and besides machinery for export. Hindustan Machine Tools at Bangalore manufactures a broad assortment of machine tools and tractors. Machines required to fabricate cement and chemicals are manufactured at Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh.
Heavy electrical equipment industry:
India produces many types of electrical equipment. Heavy electrical motors. transformers. H2O wheels. electric fans etc. . are manufactured at Bhopal. Bangalore. Hyderabad. Tiruchinapalli and otherplaces. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited ( BHEL ) has set up its workss at differentplaces. One such works is in Bangalore. Transport and equipment Industry:
India has made good advancement in this industry besides. It is engaged in the production of cars. railroad engines. railroad managers. railroad wheels and axles and ships. Chittaranjan in West Bengal manufactures electrical and diesel engines. Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh produces diesel engines. Perambur near Chennai produces railroad managers. Mumbai. Kolkata. Kochi. Vishakahpatnam and Marmagoa are the major ship edifice Centres. Aircraft industry has been developed at Bangalore. Hyderabad and Kanpur. Maruthi Udyog near Delhi produces motor autos. Kolkata ( West Bengal ) . Jamshedpur ( Jharkhand ) . Hosur in Tamllnadu ( Leyland ) and Bangalore in Karnataka ( Volvo ) are noted for the industry of motor vehicles. The railroad wheel and axle works is at Yelhanka near Bangalore.
Many chemicals are required for the production of rayon. gum elastic. paper. glass. soap. chemical fertilisers and insect powders. Except for sulfur. the other natural stuffs are available in India for the production of chemicals. After Independence great advancement has been made in this way. At present. there are more than three 100 chemical mills spread all over India. Mumbai. Kolkata. Kanpur. Bangalore. Chennai and Ahmedabad are the of import Centres of this industry. Sulphuric acid. acerb sodium carbonate. sodium carbonate ash. decoloring pulverization and soaps are produced in our state.
Chemical fertiliser industry:
Chemical fertilisers are really indispensable to better the birthrate of the dirt and to increase the production in agribusiness. India being a preponderantly an agricultural state. production of chemical fertilisers is necessary. Complex fertilisers like urea. ammonium sulfate and nitrates are produced in India. The bi-products of coal. and oil refineries are used as natural stuffs in this industry. Now natural gas is besides used as a natural stuff. The first chemical fertiliser mill in India was started at Belagola near Mysore ( Mysore fertilisers ) . The following mill was started at Travancore ( Alwaye ) in Kerala called Fertilizer and Chemicals Travancore Ltd. ( FACTS ) . Now there are more than one 100 fertiliser mills under both public and private sectors. Some of the of import fertiliser mills under the populace sector are at Sindri ( Jharkhand ) . Nangal ( Punjab ) . Trombay ( Maharashtra ) . Gorakhpur ( Uttar Pradesh ) . Rourkela ( Orissa ) . Neyveli ( Tamilnadu ) . Durgapur ( West Bengal ) . Kochi ( Kerala ) and Mangalore ( Karnataka ) . Though the production of fertilisers has increased over the past few old ages. still it is non sufficient and we import fertilisers from other states.
Cement is the most indispensable trade good for building work after Fe and steel. For the building of edifices. roads. river vale undertakings. Bridgess etc. . cement is really necessary along with Fe. That is why the ingestion of cement is the index for the rate of development of a state. The first cement mill was set up at Chennai in 1904. It used seashells as natural stuff. Now limestone. coal and gypsum are the chief natural stuffs. As the natural stuffs are heavy. the cement mills are by and large located near to the beginning of natural stuffs. Cement mills are located all over India. because the natural stuffs are available throughout the state. There are about 150 cement mills in India. Most of the cement mills are in Tamilnadu. Madhya Pradesh. Gujarat. Bihar. Rajasthan. Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Most of the mills are under the private sector. In Karnataka. Associated Cement Company near Gulbarga. Mysore Cement Company in Bhadravathi. Diamond Cement mill at Ammasandra near Tumkur are of import. India is self sufficient in cement production. We besides export cement to Sri Lanka. Indonesia. Myanmar. Afghanistan. Iran etc.
Effects OF INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA:
You have already studied that India has made industrial advancement. This development has resulted in some good and bad effects.
Good effects: Industrialization has changed India into a underdeveloped state and to-day India is one of the 10 industrially advanced states of the World. Industrialisation has increased production through the use of fresh natural resources. It has reduced to some extent the population that would hold been dependent on agribusiness. The industrial Centres have become the Centres of instruction. civilization and trade. Industrialisation has enabled us to go selfreliantwith respect to many goods for which we were depending on other states earlier. It has affected our foreign trade besides and we are able to export many goods to other states. Import of many goods has been stopped or reduced. The National Income and per capita income has increased. We have achieved development in the field of engineering besides. There is great advancement in the field of Banking. Transport and Communication and Insurance. The foreign states are attracted and they are puting their capital in our industries. The non-resident Indians are besides puting capital and therefore the investing of capital has well increased.
Bad effects: The industrial Centres attract population from rural countries and the denseness of population has increased in industrial Centres. Lack of lodging installations has created many slums. The slum inhabitants are enduring from deficiency of healthfacilities. lodging. sanitation and H2O. The slums have become the Centres of many anti-social activities. Recently in about all the provinces. the Slum Development Boardss have been set up to better the conditions of slum inhabitants. Excessive usage of Technology and Computers in industries. has resulted in the remotion of workers and this has become a large job. There is a fright that the foreign capital investing may ensue in the economic development of the state