Introduction A network that is effective today networking enterprise is very critical. Down time as well as performance that is degraded can have a serious impact that can bring operations to a halt. With the importance of networks rising in today’s technology, threats also rise with them as well. Having the ability to keep a network up and running to its maximum ability is not only a Job, it’s a business that has responsibility.
Having infrastructure security is vital in order to ensure the integrity and stability of the network for Layer 1 . Infrastructure Physical Media Layer 1 is the physical layer of a network according to the OSI model. Electricity in this layer is the most fundamental because all of the networking equipment, devices, and open network equipment is dependent on electricity to deliver power to those devices. This layer represents the physical media that is used to transfer the binary data across the different networks.
The physical layer uses all sorts of physical media to transfer the data, here are a few examples: Twisted Pair copper * Category 4 copper- A unshielded twisted pair copper that is uses four pairs for which is used in telecommunications along with some networks used for computers that provides 20 megahertz of bandwidth with a data transfer rate of 16 megabytes per second. * Category 5 copper – This type of cabling also uses four pairs and is used more extensively in terms of Ethernet connections, telephony, and local area networking systems.
Punch-down and modular connections are the primary ways of installation and conforms to the standards of TIA/Ella-568 communications standards * Category 6 copper- Twisted pair copper that is specifically used for gigabit Ethernet-based computer networks. In 2002, Category 6 was introduced, and Joined he Electronics Industry Association and Telecommunications Industry Association. This type of twisted copper consists of 4 strands and provides up to 250 megahertz with speeds up to 10 gigabits per second.
Fiber Optics * Single Mode Fiber- Type of cabling that allows light to pass through its glass optic core which is low due to the number of light reflections which lowers attenuation and which gives the signal faster travel. This cabling is primarily used colleges, universities, and cable television companies. * Multi-Mode Fiber- This type of fiber optics has a larger optic core that allows a high number of light reflections which allows more data to pass through which in turn makes the signal quality weaker if passed through long distances.
Multi-mode is used for short distances, and audio/ video for local area networks also. Topologies All networks, wired or wireless have some type of topology, which is defined as the structure of the network and/or shape. A wired topology is a physical network that conforms the network layout of cabling. On the other hand, wireless networks is topology that conforms to the way a computer connects and interacts with other networking devices with no connected cabling. Wired networking topologies are the cost common structure that is used when connecting to a network.
Here are some examples: * Bus- Uses a single cable that is used as the backbone that attaches too communications device that taps into an interface connector. * Ring- All data transmission is connected to each other with other devices through a loop which can go in the same direction either clockwise or counter clockwise. * Star- This is the most common network which is used mostly in homes and buildings. This topology uses a hub/router which is the central connection point. The only downfall to a star topology is that when the local area network fails, the hub/router fails.
Protection of Layer One With layer one being the layer that contains the physical media, it is imperative that the physical media have as much as protection as possible. The physical nature of this layer may imply physical damage such as power source disruption, network cabling being cut or torn, and/or tampering with fuses, device interference from outside radio waves, and the use of electromagnetic eavesdropping. For instance, if a network cable gets cut or unplugged, it can cause a great deal of havoc especially if it is unplanned. The most important thing to make sure of is that the infrastructure is cure.
Here are a few ways of ensuring the physical layer of the infrastructure has protection: * Locks and Enclosures- Devices that are used to house the equipment and make sure that it is stable to keep the equipment enclosed in racks and cabinets. * Electronic logging and authorization- A system that is able to provide a permanent searching repository of user activity. It is able to record and recall who, where, when, why, and how in a secure and consistent manner. * Video and Audio Surveillance – Used to monitor the behavior and activities that may change any information.
This usually consists of monitoring people for management, direction and protection. * Biometric Authentication Systems – Instead of using passwords, there are other types of authentication such as hand scans, eye scans, typing patterns, and facial authentication. * Electromagnetic Shielding- Practice of reducing electromagnetic radio frequencies which is installed in network cabling and outside devices also known as REF Shielding. * Data Cryptography- The art of protecting networking data by transforming into a format that is unreadable. The only way this data can be read is by using a secret key or decoder to decipher the text.