Compare and Contrast Classical Realism and Classical Liberalism The International relation has many issues to debate. The most keenly debate issues in International relation is pessimistic view of The Classical Realism against the optimistic view of The Classical Liberalism. The theory of The Realism came from ancient times. This theory was first time established in Greece in 431 BC by Thucydides. The Theory of The Realism is defined as in favour of using of power to bring to realization the interest of nation. They have a pessimistic view of human nature and high regard for the values of national security .
The realist are more sceptics about progress in international politics. They think that international relation is always conflictual. Another theory which is completely the opposite is Liberalism. The Classical Liberalism theory is a political ideology which was founded on ideas of freedom and equality. That ideology was introduced to the world by John Locke in the Seventeenth Century (Jackson,2010). The Classical Liberalism belief in progress and has a conviction that international relation can be cooperative.In that essay will be compared and contrast main arguments of two theory’s which is Classical Realism and Classical Liberalism.
Firstly, will be compared and contrasted a human nature of Classical Realism and Classical Liberalism. The Classical Realism has pessimistic view of human nature. The Classic Realist Thucydides’ says that international politics is driven to have a fight for a power, which has its roots in human nature (Baylis,2011) . In realist theory thought that human are highly competitive.
They consequently trying always being first. They do not wish to be taken advantages of.They try very hard do not have good international relations with other countries also trying to stop domination by others . Thucydides think that state just think about itself benefits rather than people which live in that state. As well as that Morgenthau think that the nature of man that they have essential features such competition, fear and war. On other hand The Classical Liberalism has a positive view of human nature but they agree with realist in one thought that man is competitive.
Liberal have a great believe in human mind and the rational principles can be used in international case.They knew that individuals as self- interested so they are so competitive. They Classical Liberalist have believed that human mind can over take human fear and thirst of power(Jackson,2010). They also believe that individual share many interest and they can work together and cooperative social action, domestically as well as internationally, which results in greater benefits for everybody at home and abroad. Second Argument is a Role of state and National security. Machiavelli and Hobbes shares same thought that a political Leader has a responsibility to his people, for their security and welfare.
As well as that state must have responsibility to citizens for their welfare and security and The Classical Liberal agree with that thought that states must provide security to their citizens. Another theorist John Locke Argued that state has to create a guaranty of the happiness peoples which live in that state and protect them from meddling of other people. In contrast to realist which sees states first of all as instrument of power – Machstaat ,but Liberal see the state as constitutional body – Rechstaat, (Jackson,2010) , Which sets and enforces the rule of law, respect citizens’ rights to life, liberty and property.This type of constitutional states would also respect each other and will try to cooperate between each other’s in agreement with norms of mutual and toleration (Jacksson. 2010). In case of Realist they think that role of state is securing political space to enjoy oneself.
Also the power of state must be mobilized and the state have to have a anarchical system. The Realist theorist Hobbes said that “The state needs to be organized and equipped for war to ensure domestic peace for its citizens. This is a security dilemma as it may provoke insecurity and conflict.
(Jackson,2010) The next point stated relates to Progress and Peace. The believe in progress is a core Liberal assumption. For liberal progress means that is always progress for individual. The Classical Liberal believes that human progress, human reason and cooperation lead to the process of modernization, it means that modern state will develop. The main problem of liberal is the happiness and complacency of human beings. One of the Liberal theorist Immanuel Kant, German philosopher, he thought that constitutional and mutually respectful states Kant called them “republic” could finally bring peace to the world.Also Kant argued that “If the decision to use force were taken by the people rather than by the prince, then the frequency of conflicts would be drastically reduced”(Baylis, 2011).
In case of Classical Realist they disagree with view of Classical Liberalist. They think that international relation will result as conflict between states . The Realist Theorist Hobbes said that state has anarchic system and for any circumstances they would not gave up their independence for global security and there cannot be permanent peace between states. Jackson,2010) There can be a way to escape from the personal security dilemma, however not from international security because it is impossible to create a global state or world government.
Also citizens of state would not give up their independence just because of global security guarantee. In conclusion, this two theory has many contrasts but the most debated contrast is progress and peace. The Classical Liberal point of view was that there can peace between states but The Classical Realist was disagree with this point of view , they thought that their won’t be any peace between states.Another issue is human nature, this two theories share the same view , that state have protect their citizens but still The Classical Realist has pessimistic view of human nature on the other hand The Classical Liberalist has positive view of human nature.Bibliography : Baylis J. , Smith S. , Owens P.
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