Sociology is a study of human social relationship and institutions. Sociology is a broad study and can be defined into many aspects. These studies is to understand how human are effected by surrounding cultural and social structures.
Sociology is a field of study that analyses and explains the important matters in our personal lives, our communities and the world. At the personal level, sociology investigates the social causes and consequences of such things as religious faith, aging, deviant behaviour, gender identity, family conflict, racial and romantic love. At the societal level, sociology examines and explains maters like urban community, social movement, crime and law, schools and education, business firms, prejudice and poverty and wealth. At the global level, sociology studies such phenomena as population growth and migration, economic development and war and peace.
In traditional cultures, the type of work that was occupied by the majority of the population are food gathering, and food production. In larger traditional societies, the most prominent work that was popular among the population was carpentry, stonemasonry and shipbuilding. When the industrial development exists, people work in a much wider variety of occupations.
In sociology, work is defined as the carrying out tasks, which involves the expenditure of mental and physical effort, and its objective is the production of goods and services that cater to human needs. An occupation or job is work that done in exchange for a regular wage or salary.
Work is the basis of economy or economic system in all cultures. The economic system is made up of the institutions that provide for the production and distribution of good and services. These institutions may be different from culture to culture, particular in traditional societies versus modern societies.
United States of America.
America (USA) is also known as United States (U.S) or America is a federal republic. It composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories and various possessions. At 9.8 million km square, America is the world’s third or forth-largest country by total area. In 2017, it was estimated the population of America was 325, 719, 178. In 2016, there are 6 race in America which is White(77.1%), Black(13.3%), Asian(5.6%), other/multiracial(2.6%), Native(1.2%) and Pacific Islander(0.2%). America’s national language is English. In 2016, the population of Christian was 77.1%, unaffiliated was 18.2%, Jewish was 2.1%, other was 2.5% and unknown was 2.6%. The capital of America is Washington, DC and the largest city is New York City.
Social System of United States of America.It is a system by which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy. In an open system of social stratification, status is achieved through merit or effort, and social mobility between classes is possible through education and certain opportunities. The American class system is typically broadly divided into three main layers which are upper class, middle class and lower class. they are based on socioeconomic conditions. Although the definitions and membership criteria aren’t concrete, these three classes offer a general understanding of what social stratification looks like in the U.S.
At the top of the hierarchy, individuals who are considered to be members of the upper class are the owners of the means of production and most of the country’s private wealth. Most of them are large business owners, or top executives that have a great deal of income and wealth. Both wealth and income are two different concepts. Both of them plays a big role on determining social status. Income is salary and other money that is regularly received, while wealth is the total value of assets, minus the outstanding debts. To make it clear, income is what we make and wealth is what we have.
Middle class includes about half of the U.S. population. The middle class has several layers which is upper-middle, average-middle and lower-middle. The upper-middle are mostly college graduates and many go on to highly prestigious white-collar jobs such as doctors, lawyers, businessmen, local politicians and more. Average middle members are typically work at less prestigious white-collar jobs such as manager, teachers, office worker and more. Most of them are college graduates. The lower-middle class which also known the working class. they are typically work in blue-collar jobs such as police officers, electricians, plumbers, factory workers and more.
Lower class are individuals who are not very skilled in their jobs and who are not specialized. They get less amount of money as their wages. They are also known as working poor class. they are low in skills and they lack job security. Most of them work as fast food worker, construction worker, janitors, maids and more. Sometimes, they suffer from financial unstable conditions.
Office Environment in United States of America.The office environment in United States of America is informal. There is no apparent hierarchy between upper level management and lower level management. All employee are treated as equal and they are welcomed to give their own opinion. Superiors are accessible and the mangers rely on individual employees and teams for their expertise. Meetings are held not to deal with big decision but are more like discussions and to centered on analysing, planning and reviewing of a project. Everyone’s opinions and ideas are shared and if they don’t agree with it, objections will be made. Employees are motivated by their superiors but there is a little direct criticism in either direction. Staff expecting constant feedback on their work.
End, Goals and Objectives
People work for a variety of reasons. Some of them are based on economic, some of them are social and psychological. Almost 9/10 working Americans say that their reason they hold a job is to earn a living and provide for their families. One of the reason is they are working is to live independently. Living in a big city such as New York City will cost a lot of money. So, to survive in that city, they need to work to earn a living. And they have to work harder if they want to support their family.
Then, they work is to build up a retirement nest egg, to earn pension or qualify for Social Security. Some of them say that they work to feel like a useful person while some of them say that they work to help to improve the society. This is for them to ensure their own future. Maybe after retirement, they want to rest or maybe honeymoon with their spouse. They also need to support their children even after they are retired. With pension or savings, they can still support their children.
When employed Americans were asked directly if they work because they need the paycheck or because they want to work, most of them say that they work because they need the money. This is because they need the money to buy the things they wanted or their needs such as paying bill, house rent and more. They say they work is for the money, maybe because they do not really like the work field. So, they only work for the mney. Some of them say that they just want to work. This is for their own pleasure. They want to feel useful in the society and want to be accepted in the society. Maybe this is because they work in the field which they always dream of. The others says both they want to work and they need the money.
According to sociologists, status describes the position a person occupies in a particular setting. We all occupy several statuses and play the roles that may be associated with them. An individual may occupy the statuses of student, employee, and club president and play one or more roles with each one. To make it easy to understand, status is a position in a group while role is what we have to play in the given status that was expected by the society. For an example, a father is the leader of a family. Therefore, he must provide the safety, educate the children and guide them as expected by the society because of his position as a leader of the family.
American organization’s office environment is informal. Employees are treated as equals and independent views are welcomed. Every employee are welcomed to give their own opinion no matter what their position is. But when their opinion was rejected, objections are made. Employees are motivated strongly by their superiors but there is little direct criticism in either direction. They accept the criticism for their own good. From criticism, they can become a better employee.
Rank.Within almost every organization, there is always a hierarchy among the employees that is based on the position, title, role and function. For an example, the highest rank in the organization is the Director followed by Assistant Director. In every rank, they have their own role. Usually, Assistant Director is more function than the Director. Maybe this is because of their share of the company. Some titles exist in virtually every aspect of every industry, such as administrative assistant, office manager, branch manager and operations manager. Others are specific to certain divisions that most business have such as accounting or human relation or resources. Other job titles are specific to a certain industry such as finance or insurance.
In America, a job title is a term that describes in a few words or less the position held by an employee. Depending on the job, the job title can describe the level of the position or the responsibilities of the person holding the position.
Other countries across east and west view America’s rank and position as their model. For an example, account executive, administrative assistant, administrative manager, branch manager, business analyst and more. This is because their rank and position are most functional and logic.
Punctuality.As we know, Japan always sees that punctuality is an important things in their work culture. America also perceive punctuality and time management are important. Just like other cultures are preoccupied with relationship-building, America are preoccupied with the time. For them, time is almost a tangible asset which can be saved, spent, lost, found, invested and wasted.
Their central tenet is that “time is money” and wasting time is just as bad as wasting money. Thus, punctuality is an essential part of US business etiquette and lateness is considered disrespectful and rude. Being on time especially at meeting is essential for their success. Five minutes of late with an apology is acceptable but 10-15 minutes late requires a phone call to warn of the delay and apologies. Being late can be seen as a sign of disrecpect.
To save more time, Americans seldom take breaks during the day. They can finish their work on time or earlier if they do not take breaks. Meanwhile in Sweden, workers often enjoy a daily breather called fika which means an extended coffee break during which employees can gather and socialize.
Another way to save more time, Americans tend to eat at their desks. They have a reputation for being chained to their desk. Only one in five Americans actually spends their lunch break away from their desks. While the other having their lunch on their desks while continue their responsibility or work. Millions of Americans are skipping lunch altogether to continue working.
Sanction.Sanction system in America’s workplace are used to discipline employee from a verbal warning to denying the employees certain privileges. To discipline the employees, some corrective action or policies vary can be applied to the employees, depending on the type of the business and the workforce. The most method used in USA workplace are Performance Improvement Plans and also Reassignments and Loss of Privileges. In the Performance Improvement Plans , some employers needs a Performance Improvement Plan. The manager will give the employee a performance appraisal rating. Some of the result will falls below their acceptable level. If this happen, usually, the employee and the manager work as a team to construct a Performance Improvement Plan that will contains the points for managers to monitor the progress and completion. When the goals of the Performance Improvement Plans are achieved, the employee will be re-evaluated and will be considered acceptable by the employer’s performance standards.
For some organizations, Reassignments and Loss of Privileges are performance-based alternative work assignments including opportunities for telecommuting, teleworking or flexible work schedules. The employer and the employee have to agree on the terms and the conditions of the arrangement before the telecommuting arrangement begins. When the employee is unable to maintain their performance levels, an appropriate form of discipline is to revoke the agreement and require the employee to work from the office where their manager can routinely observe and monitor their work habits. This happened is to restore structure and accountability and to improve the employee’s performance.
There are many element of work culture in America. Generally speaking, people should beware of overgeneralizations concerning a country’s culture, especially if the country is a large and diverse as the United States of America. This is because some of the work culture might not being used in certain place, organization or company. Work culture is important for most of the company such as punctuality. If the employee does not punctual to come to work, the company might losing some profit because of their action. Another example is sanction, this culture is to ensure the employee’s performance.