Reading performances can easily tell the difference between reading and comprehending a text.
Learning English Language requires understanding of the language itself, it refers to the pronunciation and comprehension of the words. Moreover, comprehension for some readers, find it challenging. Learners may understand the word separately, but putting them together to get main ideas doesn’t happen always as it should be.
According to Serravallo (2000) comprehension is at the heart of what it means to really read by thinking and understanding and getting at the meaning behind a text. Comprehension instruction begins before children can even conventionally read. As children are read to during read-aloud, they are asked to think about characters, make predictions about what will come next, question and wonder what’s happening, and consider what lesson they can learn from the book.
According to Kruidenier (2008) comprehension is an active process and the reader must interact and be engaged with the text for it to work well. It is also a strategic process which can be taught. As comprehension takes place, words are decoded and associated with their meaning in the reader’s memory and phrases and sentences are processed rapidly or fluently enough to that the meanings derived from one word, phrase, or sentence are not lost before the next is processed. Yet, Reading comprehension can be described as understanding a text that is read, or the process of constructing meaning from a text. According to the U.S. Department of Education, despite noteworthy progress in recent years, one student in four public school eighth-graders lacks basic grade-level reading skills: they do not understand grade-appropriate material. This result is all the more troubling given that we know more than ever about teaching reading effectively.
According to the U.S. Department of Education, despite noteworthy progress in recent years, one student in four public school eighth-graders lacks basic grade-level reading skills: they do not understand grade-appropriate material. This result is all the more troubling given that we know more than ever about teaching reading effectively.
In the late 1990’s, the National Reading Panel reviewed studies of reading instruction to assess the effectiveness of different approaches. The resulting report identified five areas of instruction essential to an effective reading program: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension (NICHD, 2000).
This study aims to develop and improve the difficulties of the secondary language users through enhancing their comprehension skills by reading passages and giving them some exercises. The study seeks to resolve comprehension difficulties found in understanding the secondary language users.
Statement of the Problem
The general problem of the study is: How does the level of the comprehension understanding of the Third Year BSed English students be assessed and developed?
Specifically, it sought answers to the following research queries:
1. How can the level of comprehension of students be determined?
2. What is the level of student’s comprehension before the intervention?
3. How the following factors affect students comprehension:
a. Background Knowledge
The researchers gather different studies to fully understand the comprehension. And according to reading theory, comprehension is dependent on several cognitive processes, including decoding, word recognition, and knowledge. Reading comprehension is very important because it may be tested by a passage which is to be translated into good English, or by question based on the content of a passage. In this case the passage is not translated, the questions being asked in the foreign language and the student answering in English.
According to Westwood (2008) in his study “What Teachers Needs To Know About Reading And Writing Difficulties”. Stated that reading comprehension is often conceptualized as functioning at different levels of sophistication and referred to, for example, as literal, inferential and critical. The most basic level (literal) is where the reader is able to understand the factual information presented in a passage of text – for example, he or she can tell you the name of the main character and what he does for a living, because that information is stated explicitly in the text.
Furthermore, this study can help students to determine their stages of reading, if the students can answer simple questions like what the author is actually saying on the given literature the student is in the “literal” level, if the readers asked what the author means is, by what is said, if he can read between the lines and make inferences about things not directly said. Then, the reader is in the “inferential” level. However, the “critical” level happens when readers asked themselves why the author says what he said. Therefore, if the students can determine his level of comprehension, it will help him to challenge and encourage himself to move on to the next level of comprehension.
From the study Using Poetry to Teach Reading Comprehension Strategies to English Language Learners by McCardle, Chhabra ; Kapinus (2008) stressed that, “The importance of reading comprehension cannot be downplayed – it is very essence of reading, its ultimate goal. Itis very individuals read. It is also where people most often fail in reading.”
The researchers believe that a student or a learner should have patience when it comes to reading. Because, a learner wont understand anything if he want everything to be fast. It is not a game where in you have to make everything fast for you to be able to win. In reading, you have to make everything slow, for you to understand and comprehend what the author is trying to say.
According to Peregoy ; Boyle (2005), metacognition is the process of analyzing our own comprehension processes or thinking about thinking. Specifically, good readers use metacognition to recognize and repair understanding when something they read does not make sense.
In addition, metacognition is comprehending text through use of analyzing own learning or thinking process, this helps learner to understand a text well and a good reader doesn’t rely only on the printed text but the message underneath or lying in the text.
Hedge (2000) asserts that the reason for pre-, during-, and post-reading tasks is to sense of helping readers to increase their ability to tackle and comprehend more complex texts. Finally, Hedge has highlighted activities that can be used to increase comprehension with post-reading activities. Some of these activities include confirming the purpose set for reading, discussing their responses to the writer’s opinion, using notes for writing activity, and asking follow-up questions.
Moreover, these 3 reading strategies namely, pre-, during-, and post reading can help students to increase their ability in reading especially in comprehending a text. The pre-reading is the process of skimming a text to track the key ideas before carefully reading from start to finish. It is also called pre-viewing. In during reading, once the reader’s mind is prepared, the next task is to interact with the text to monitor their comprehension. While in post reading, the task of the students is to summarize and reflect on what they have read. Meaning, the main goal of these strategies is to help the students to develop and increase their comprehension skills.
Now a day everything is getting advanced every second of time. Every day starts with something new. Whatever be the field, everything is getting advanced. Lots of researches and studies are carried out various subjects around the world. These updates on various fields cannot be included in the student curriculum. The students have to always keep their eyes on what new things are arriving day by day. This is where the seminars are of great importance. Seminars are capable of keeping the students updated with the technologies. Seminars provide latest information about the things that the students need to know. They cannot improve their knowledge from textbooks alone. They must be take part in various seminars on latest topics. Seminars can be inspiring and it is a very useful tool for students.
According to Washington (2008) A seminar may have several purposes or just one purpose. For instance, a seminar may be for the purpose of education, such as a lecture, where the participants engage in the discussion of an academic subject for the aim of gaining a better insight into the subject. Other forms of educational seminars might be held to impart some skills or knowledge to the participants. Examples of such seminars include personal finance, web marketing, real estate, investing or other types of seminars where the participants gain knowledge or tips about the topic of discussion.
I Read It, But I Don’t Get It
Tovani, who also worked with Keene and Zimmermann, is a teacher and literacy coach in Denver. In this book, she discusses why many children who have learned how to recite the words on the page still struggle with comprehension. She believes struggling readers need to see how good readers think as they read. To promote thinking, Tovani asks children to write down what’s on their minds as they read. Tovani says writing makes readers pay attention to their “thinking voice,” the thoughts they have as they try to understand the text. By recording their thinking in the margin — or on another piece of paper — students create a permanent record of their attempts to understand the text. Readers can return to their thinking, revise their ideas and accumulate information needed to build comprehension.
In addition, the study of the researchers is all about reading comprehension and reading passages. So it is important for the learners to understand what they are reading because they might misunderstood what is the author wants to impose to them. In the book of Tovani, she discussed why many students read without comprehension. She believes that many students struggling in comprehending a text. Tovani finds a way to help the students in comprehension, she ask the students to write down what’s on their mind as they read. Through that, it will serve as a basis or guide in making and gathering information to build comprehension.
Reading with Meaning
Debbie Miller, the author of several books on reading, outlines methods for teaching reading comprehension to elementary school students in “Reading with Meaning.” Miller discusses setting up a classroom where plan instruction around what students need individually and help those students with one-on-one conferences. Reading teachers, Miller believes, need to build relationships with their students based on trust and open communications. Miller teaches students to work with the same reading strategies Zimmermann and Keene outline in their works. However, in the book, Miller describes teaching students to apply those comprehension strategies independently.
Moreover, the researchers believe that Miller classroom setup plan will be effective, if we teach students according to their individual needs the students will easily understand the given task, and if we teach them individually this could help them overcome their weaknesses, build trust with their teachers, and feel that they are count.
Significance of the Study
The generalization of this study would be a great contribution to the vast knowledge in relation to students’ achievement.
The vital results of this investigation could be highly significant and beneficial to the following:
To the students. They would greatly benefit with the study because they can get tip how they will improve their reading skills. This study will help the students to be enlightened their lack of interest in reading. It can also help them to change themselves for their own improvement.
To the teachers. They will be informed about why some students have a lack of interest in reading. They can make an adjustment in order to teach those students effectively and fairy. This study should make them aware what if they can adopt their classes to better to meet the needs of their students.
To the other researchers. Who will be interested to conduct similar studies this study will be beneficial to them. They can use this research as their reference and additional information in making their research.
This chapter aims to explain the methodology used by the research in gathering data for the study.
The relation that exists between the comprehension and the Reading Passages: Improving the Acquisition of the English Language can be conceptualized by using the paradigm show in Figure 1.
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOME
Figure 1.Conceptual Paradigm of the Study
Frame 1 of the graphic representation shows the input of the study which is the alternate conceptions possessed by the third year BSED Major in English about comprehension. Frame 2 contains the pre – assessment that is used to identify if the students have existing alternate conceptions, the pre – test to determine the level of their comprehension, afterwards the researchers formulated an intervention and after it was given within 2 weeks the post – test follows. Frame 3 shows the developed application that is used as intervention. Frame 4 presents the output of the action research which is developed conceptual understanding of the students on comprehension.
Methods of Research
The research design used in this study was the quantitative research design. The purpose of this design is to measure data and generalize results from a sample to the population of interest. This study was conducted at Bulacan State University Bustos-Campus. The respondents of this study consist of the Third Year BSed English Major students from that school..
Population of the study
The target population for the study was 3rd year BSED English major students currently pursuing their studies in Bulacan State University – Bustos, Bulacan. Therefore, there are 110 total numbers of respondents where there are 83 girls and 27 boys.
Male 27 24.54
Female 83 75.46
total 110 100
The researchers heavily relied to a multiple questionnaire. The questionnaires stand as a major instrument to gather the important data from the respondents. In order to gauge if the students have a problem in comprehending a passage, the researchers used 15 items each questionnaire that is gather from different sources.
Data gathering procedure
The researchers personally allocate the test to the respondents to ensure the 100% retrieval of the questionnaires. The comprehension of the students was based on the given exercises. Other important data from the respondents such as age, gender, habits was personally retrieve by the researchers through survey form.
To interpret the date effectively, the researchers will employ the following statistical treatment. The Percentage, Weighted Mean and T-test are the tools use to interpret data.
This will employ to determine the frequency counts and percentage distribution of personal related variables of the respondents.
Formula: % = f/n X 100
% is the percentage
F is the Frequency
N is the total number of respondents
100 is a constant value
2. Average Weighted Mean
This will be used to determine the assessment of the respondents with regards to their personal profiles.
Formula: X = Fx / N
X is the weighted mean
F is the frequency
X is the weight of each item
N is the number of cases
3. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA)
This will helpful in making comparison of two or more means which enables a researcher to draw various results and predictions about two or more sets of data.
Steps in ANOVA
1. First step is to compute the total sum of the squares.
2. Second step is to compute the squares between columns.
3. The third step is to compute for the sum of squares within the column
4. To complete the ANOVA table, calculate the mean of sum of squares
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
This part of the research presents the results and discussion of the level of comprehension, document analysis, and content validity administered to the respondents.
Table 1. Level of Comprehension before the Seminar
Score of the students Frequency Percentage Verbal interpretation
1-5 21 19.09 Poor
6-10 30 27.27 Average
11-15 59 53.64 Excellent
Total 110 100
Table 1 shows the level of students comprehension before conducting the intervention, the table shows, the score of students, frequency, percentage, and the verbal interpretation, the data was gathered from the 110 students of Bulacan State University Bustos Campus through use of 15 item test prepared by the researchers and based from the survey it shows that 21 students got 1-5 scores which means that they have poor comprehension of the text, while, 30 students got 6-10 scores which means that 27.27 percent of students have an average comprehension of the text and the remaining 59 students got 11-15 scores which means that majority of the students have a better understanding of the text.
Table 2. Level of comprehension after the Seminar
Score of the students Frequency Percentage Verbal interpretation
1-5 4 3.63 Poor
6-10 15 13.64 Average
11-15 91 82.73 Excellent
Total 110 100
Table 2 shows the level of students comprehension after conducting the intervention prepared by the researchers, the table shows the score of the students, frequency, percentage and the verbal interpretation, and it shows that 4 students got 1-5 scores which is far from the `21 students who got 1-5 scores from the table 1 this means that after the intervention, 4 students will remain poor in understanding text. While, 15 students got 6-10 scores which is also far from the 30 students who got 6-10 scores from the table 1, this means that students with average understanding of the text has increased after the intervention. Moreover, 91 students got 11-15 scores after the intervention which represents the majority of the students who can understand a text better.
Table 3. Result of Pre-test and Post-test
Student no. Pre-test Post-test
1 10 6
2 3 10
3 3 11
4 2 8
5 11 12
6 12 14
7 11 5
8 2 5
9 4 7
10 7 7
11 10 12
12 10 4
13 9 5
14 3 9
15 3 10
16 11 11
17 12 14
18 9 14
19 9 14
20 10 7
21 6 5
22 6 12
23 4 11
24 3 11
25 2 12
26 12 5
27 12 12
28 4 12
29 3 7
30 10 7
31 6 7
32 3 6
33 12 14
34 1 14
35 11 13
36 3 12
37 6 10
38 7 10
39 7 8
40 12 9
41 12 12
42 7 5
43 7 5
44 6 9
45 10 8
46 10 11
47 4 7
48 3 12
49 13 12
50 4 4
51 3 9
52 6 8
53 6 8
54 10 15
55 2 12
56 5 7
57 4 8
58 7 3
59 4 2
60 12 12
61 13 11
62 4 15
63 13 15
64 13 15
65 3 5
66 7 9
67 7 10
68 5 1
69 7 11
70 7 11
71 12 14
72 4 5
73 3 7
74 4 7
75 6 9
76 3 8
77 14 14
78 8 8
79 5 5
80 6 13
81 4 9
82 5 9
83 5 8
84 4 9
85 8 9
86 13 12
87 13 13
88 3 3
89 2 5
90 5 5
91 14 15
92 12 11
93 12 14
94 3 2
95 2 2
96 1 11
97 11 10
98 6 12
99 6 12
100 7 13
101 12 10
102 11 10
103 5 5
104 7 9
105 6 8
106 1 8
107 13 11
108 12 13
109 7 14
110 8 13
Table 3 shows the result of pre-test and post-test of the 110 students of Bulacan State University Bustos Campus, the survey contains 15 item test that was gathered by the researchers from different sources, according to the survey the pre-test results 68 percent of the students failed to meet the passing score which is 8 out of 15 this means that most of the students don’t have an idea on how they will comprehend a text well, in contrary, the post-test results 83 percent of the students got 8-15 scores which means that the intervention held by the researchers help the students to gain ideas and tips on how to comprehend a text well.
Result of Significant Difference between the pretest and post test score
To get the results if there is significant difference between the level of students reading comprehension before and after the conducted seminar, researchers used F – test. The table below shows the result of F – test using Microsoft excel.
Table 4. F computed used F-Test Two-Sample for Variance
Variable Mean F Value F critical Decision
Pre-Test 9.35 0.860 0.729 Reject
? = 0.21
The computed F value is 0.860 is greater than the critical value of 0.729. The result suggests the rejection of null hypothesis and the acceptance of the alternative hypothesis. This means that there is a significant difference between the students’ level of reading comprehension before and after the intervention. The result implied that the intervention used in the form of Seminar is found to be effective tool in developing the reading comprehension of the students.
On the basis of the significant findings of this study, the following conclusions are drawn:
1. Some of the respondents have less interest towards reading before the seminar.
2. Majority of the respondents developed their comprehending skill after the seminar, based on the post-test.
3. The action plan taken by the researchers helped the students increased their interest in reading passages.
4. The tips given during the seminar helped the learners on how to make reading at the same time comprehending easy for them.
5. The learners loses their interest easily when the text seemed long.
In the guide of findings and conclusions drawn from the data, the following recommendations are hereby presented:
1. The student should understand and reevaluate what he’s currently reading is all about.
2. Improve one’s vocabulary.
3. Read for pleasure, for enjoyment.
4. Stop or paused reading when confused and try to analyze what you just read.
5. Other intervention can also be used in this research such as games, film viewing, and peer tutoring.
6. Conduct the panel discussion to future educators that will soon teach.
7. This research must be better to have continuous application of the intervention to develop fully their comprehension understanding and focus more on the weak side of the students.