By the early 18th century. the Ottoman Empire was in diminution. The weak swayers of the imperium left the manner unfastened for power battles among functionaries. spiritual experts. and Janissary commanding officers. Provincial decision makers and landowners conspired to run out gross from the cardinal exchequer. The general economic system suffered from competition with the West as imported goods ruined local industry. European challengers took advantage of Ottoman failing. The Austrians pushed the Ottomans from Hungary and the northern Balkans. Russia expanded into the Caucasus and Crimea. The capable Christian peoples of the Balkans challenged their swayers: the Greeks won independency 1830. and Serbia won independency in 1867.
European military assaults and diseases destroyed bing civilisations. African and Asiatic civilisations were able to defy the early European reaching. but the latter’s go oning development by the terminal of the 18th century made them dominant. The low-level civilisations reacted otherwise. Some retreated into an idealised yesteryear ; others absorbed thoughts from their swayers. The assorted attempts at opposition did non all win. Some civilisations survived ; others collapsed.
The leaders and minds of the Islamic universe were divided about how to change by reversal diminution and thrust back Europeans. They argued over a spectrum ranging from a return to the yesteryear to the acceptance of Western ways. By the 19th century. the Arabs under the diminished Ottoman Empire were exposed to the danger of European conquering. The loss of Islamic district to the Europeans engendered a sense of crisis in the Middle East.
The Muslims had faced the menace of the West since the Middle Ages. Muslims shared many facets of civilization with Judeo-christian and Grecian tradition ; their civilisation had contributed to the rise of the West. The Muslims had many centres to support ; the autumn of the Ottoman Empire did non intend the terminal of Islamic independency. They had clip to larn during the long Western progress. Muslims could cleave to the truths of Islam and survive as a people.