An example off dir etc action could be the savior’s dashing Into a blazing structure and saving a trapped Infant fro the impending fire or the act of putting himself in debt to feed and clothe an ill fortuned family. An indirect action, though, often occurs when the savior pits himself against a devious a ND corrupt force in either a forceful or peaceful fashion, yet almost always with the foreknowledge e that only imprisonment or death can result.
The ultimate return of this action would not so m such lead to the relinquishing of former corrupt ways, but It would give faith to those for whom the e savior was fighting so they could continue in their struggle against oppression. In both America n and English literature, this savior Is a common character who often sets the moral tone of r a work. Even though the savior comes in many different forms, the life surrounding literature’ s most renowned savior, Jesus Christ, provides a common structure that many books utilize.
One such story soaked in Christian symbolism is One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest in which taut horror Ken Keyes often compares and models the mall character Randall McCarthy after Christ Although McCarthy doctrine and social mores are not quite as fundamental as Chrism’s, some e similar messages break through as he plays savior for the patients of the mental ward of a h spiral.
Through both direct and indirect acts of servitude on behalf of the fearful patients an corrupt Nurse Ratchet, McCarthy leads the way to salvation by way of a number of events that parallel Chrism’s entering of the sinful world, his recruitment and teaching of the disc piles, the Pharisees’ persecution of him, and his ultimate destruction at the hands of a corrupt and evil opponent. For there to be a savior somewhat resembling Christ, two things are needed: those needing to be saved and a setting where evil is the dominating force.
Upon the entrant once of the favor, a sense of selflessness must be acquired as it is his duty to serve the needy an d oppressed. McCarthy assimilates himself into the role off Christ figure quite quickly, working to heal the patients and present to them the first steps to salvation. The appearance of Christ in the sinful world and of McCarthy in the manipulating ward was the beginning of their Jobs as messiahs.
Before Christ assumed this tedious Job, he came to the prophet John the Baptist who, prior to the arrival of Christ, people had often qua questioned on the issue of whether or not he was the messiah; he had always dutifully replied that e was not the messiah but was indeed a precursor of him. 3 In One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, the 1 C. I. Subfield, deed. , The Holy Bible, King James Version (Newark: Oxford University Pres s, 1909), The New Testament, Matt. 1 . 2 Ken Keyes, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (New York: Signet, 1962), p. 25. 3 Subfield, pop. It. , John 3: 28. Patient Ellis performs a similar role. Ellis is a product of electrotherapist which is a me decal procedure Just short of lobotomy. As a result, he now adorns the walls with his arms outspread as if the hospital has nailed or crucified him there,4 ND he serves as a warning to the rest of the patients not to resist the therapeutic power of the hospital. More importantly, though h, Keyes uses Ellis as the precursor of McCarthy, foreshadowing the future use of the torture treatment on McCarthy, the result of which is his ‘crucifixion. 5 During the Biblical event in which Christ asked to have John the Baptist baptize him, John replied, bewildered, that he had moor e of a need to have Christ baptize him than the other way around, but, in response, Christ said to do it he baptismal waters. 6 Keyes also alludes to this event, a bit more wittingly, when McCarthy enters he ward shaking hands and making greetings, only to come across the crucified Ellis standing in a puddle of urine. McCarthy then states, in his own version of ‘suffer it,’ ‘My name e is R. P. McCarthy and I don’t like to see a full grown man sloshing’ around in his own water. 7 After Chrism’s cleansing, he went about and healed the people in need, especially those afflicted with physical ailments, for example a dying leper, a centurion’s servant, and a feverish mother. 8 McCarthy, too, is described as a healer. Broaden, one of the patients on the ward who is receptive to Musher’s teachings, describes a ruin with a Disturbed art patient who asks for his attention: I couldn’t sleep much the rest of the night and I kept seeing those yellow teeth… Asks Eng to Look me! Look me!… That face, Just a yellow, starved need, come looming out of the dark in front of me, wanting things… Skiing things. I wondered how McCarthy slept, plagued by a hundred faces like that, or two hundred, or a thousand. 9 Broaden also witnesses the entrance of McCarthy onto the ward and senses the pop were emanating from his hand as he greets the patients and shakes their hands. When the e two finally get around to shaking hands, Broaden says that his ‘hand commenced to feel peculiar r and went to swelling up… Like [McCarthy] was transmitting his own blood into it. ’10 Perhaps one of Chrism’s most renowned cases of miracle healing was the one in which he raised the recently deceased Lazarus from his grave. 1 Sticking to the mold, McCarthy, too, ‘raises the flesh’ of Broaden. 12 Broaden is not dead, but his sexuality is, and the messiah of masculinity, McCarthy, equating 4 Keyes, pop. Cit. , p. 20 Ibid. , p. 237. 6 Subfield, pop. Cit. , Matt. 3: 1315. 7 Keyes, pop. Cit. , p. 25 8 , Matt. 8. 9 Keyes, pop. Cit. , p. 234 Ibid. , p. 27. 11 Subfield, pop. Cit. , John 11: 112: 11. 12 Margaret Church and William T. Stafford, deeds. , Modern Fiction Studies (New Jersey: P Urdu Research Foundation, 1975), Volvo. 2, No. 2, “Ken Keys Psychopathic Savior: A Rejoinder,” by Rob ret Former, p. 27. 5 the sexual organ to the soul,13 induces Broaden to have an erection by telling titillating tales of women and rekindled manhood. 15 Christ, following his doctrine stating that ‘he that is greatest among you shall be your servant,’16 also acted on behalf of all of his followers and their need at once, rather than Just one at a time, and subjected himself to the tortures of crucifixion n in order to pay for their sin. McCarthy, too, acts in an indirect fashion submitting himself to pap n on behalf of the patients. 7 He breaks Nurse Ratchet’s office window, cutting his hand,18 and he later attacks her and rips off her uniform, exposing her femininity, and ultimately sacrificing g himself since the response to the attack is his lobotomy. According to Broaden, We couldn’t stop him because we were the ones making him do it. It wasn’t the nurse that was forcing him , it was our need. ’19 The first stages of Musher’s presence in the fearful domain of the hospital, based the entrance of Christ into the world, is productive and beneficial to the patients who he is first introducing to the path of salvation.
To lead mankind to salvation, Christ needed a little more than Just miracles, he needed d an (almost) unfaltering backing and a receptive audience. With that he recruited the twelve disciples and sent them to cleanse evil spirits and spread the word of the Lord. MGM ropy, following suit, does the same by ‘recruiting’ the patients in the ward as his own disciple less whom he then reattaches the arts of their manhood. Even with the miracles, though, Christ and McCarthy both have a hard time convincing everybody of their plausibility, and, eve tally, other’s doubts lead to their downfalls.
The relation between Chrism’s disciples and Musher’s patients is an important one in ages, some bearing little or no importance and others forming the basis for the rest of the story. One of the first events to transpire between the Christ and the disciples was when he ACTA ally recruited them. He taught them his lessons, led them on a trek to salvation, gave the m the power to cleanse men,20 and made them ‘fishers of men’21 so that they could help him lead the rest of mankind to salvation. One locale, for example, where Christ took the disciples o teach them was on a boat in the Sea of Galilee. 2 Keyes makes a direct connection with this when McCarthy takes eleven patients and the doctor (thus his twelve ‘disciples’) on a fish Eng expedition on the open seas to teach them about manly life and how to reclaim it. 23 Prior to the leaving of the ward, the patient Ellis, who is not going, bids farewell and tells another patient to ‘be a fisher of men,’24 directly alluding to Chrism’s expedition. The trip is a success with the 13 Ibid. , p. 226. Keyes, pop. Cit. , up. 189190. 15 Bruce Scares, Ken Keyes (Caldwell, Texas: The Cotton Printers, Ltd. , 1974), p. 4. 16 Subfield, pop. It. , Matt. 23: 11. 17 Scares, loc. Cit. 18 Keyes, pop. Cit. , up. 172173. 19 Ibid. , p. 267. 20 Subfield, pop. Cit. , Matt. 10: 1. 21 Ibid. , Matt. 4: 1819. Ibid. , Matt. 8: 23. 24 Keyes, pop. Cit. , p. 198. 14 25 As a messiah of masculinity,26 McCarthy teaches about a manly life consisting of, among other things, whoring, drinking, fishing, and swearing. 27 Another very important thing that McCarthy emphasizes is the ability to laugh uninhibitedly. His gospel of laughter reaches out to the patients and their senses of humor that an overbearing fear has all but annihilated. 9 Through his win observance of the events that take place, Broaden sees how McCarthy watches for the humor in the behavior of the hospital personnel, ‘and when he sees how funny it is h e goes to laughing, as this aggravates them to no end. He’s safe as long as he can laugh… And it works pretty fair. ’30 This revives Bromide’s memory of his Native American father who also used this tactic when dealing with white businessmen and government men who wanted their land; by laughing uninhibitedly, his father had aggravated and humiliated the greedy white m en. 1 This memory further reinforces Musher’s teachings and Broaden, even though he still goes not have his ability to laugh back yet, realizes that man cannot really be strong until he c an finally see the funny side of things. 32 From all of this, Broaden, still learning from McCarthy, finally starts to near salvation. This occurs when the McCarthy takes a vote (that wins) on whether t o allow the patients to watch the World Series, but Nurse Ratchet denies them the privilege.
In r espouse, McCarthy leads a strike and assembles the men in front of the blank TV and Nurse Ratchet loses her composure and yells at them in a screechy manner that Broaden finds so funny that he almost laughs. 34 Broaden is finally on the road to recuperation, though, when an orderly finds his stash of hidden gum and McCarthy makes a Joke, at which Broaden chuckles for the first time in years. 35 Having gone through his battle against fear and finally regaining his ability to laugh, Broaden remembers what laughter can do, 36 all because of Musher’s help which opens Bromide’s eyes to some of the good around him. 7 With the advent of Bromide’s awareness, McCarthy has already succeeded in following up in some of Chrism’s foot steps. Perhaps the most difficult part of Chrism’s career was his trying to convince others that hat he was saying was the truth and getting them to recognize him for who he truly McCarthy shares the same sentiment, although, it is more a product of apathy. In lit ratter, one symbol used often to represent Christ is the fish. In fact, in the Greek language the w rod for fish is stitch’s which is an acrostic that stands for lessons Christofis Thou House Shooter, or J sees Christ Son of God Savior. 8 This symbol is also seen in One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest on 25 Ibid. , p. 212. Church, pop. Cit. , p. 226. 27 Keyes, pop. Cit. , up. 198199. 28 Margaret L. Hartley, deed. , Southwest Review (Dallas: Southern Methodist University Pr ss, 1973), Volvo. LIVID, No. 2, “Salvation Through Laughter: Ken Keyes and the Cuckoo’s Nest,” by Steppe n L. Tanner, p. 125. 29 Ibid. Keyes, pop. Cit. , p. 104. 31 Ibid. , p. 86. 32 Ibid. , p. 203. 33 Ibid. , p. 128. Hartley, pop. Cit. , p. 131 . 35 Keyes, pop. Cit. , up. 184185. 37 Ibid. , p. 216. 38 Philip Babcock Gave, Ph.
D. , deed. , Webster Third New International Dictionary (Spring field, Mass. : 26 Musher’s underwear, which has white whales on it. 39 This symbol may identify McCarthy as a Christ figure to the knowledgeable reader, but the patients in the ward need a little more he Ip. Some of the doubt among Chrism’s own disciples was shown when, while on a fishing boat, an already unproductive, uneventful day, Peter doubted this carpenter’s knowledge about fishing g, but threw the nets out anyway. A boat load offish was the result, yet Peter still doubted. 0 Peter was finally won over, though, during a terrible sea storm in which he and his fishing crew was caught. Hearing their cries for help, Christ walked out on the water and bid that Peter come o UT on the water with him. Peter did so and stood on the water, yet as he neared Christ, the turn bullet eaters frightened him and he began to sink. Christ then reached out and grasped hi s hand and stated, ‘O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt? 41 Broaden, too, doubted and stayed in the ‘fog’ which enshrouded him, rather than take part in the events that were taking place in the ward. 2 Broaden is compared to the doubtful Peter and the fog is somewhat compared to t he water into which he was sinking. When McCarthy comes around looking for support in a vote, Broaden reports that ‘that big red hand of Musher’s is reaching down into the fog dropping down and dragging the men up by their hands… Ragging them out of the f go. ’43 After Christ saved him, Peter finally believed in his powers and recognized him for who he was; Christ asked Peter, Whom say ye that I am? ‘ and Peter responded, ‘Thou art the Christ, the s on of the living God’. 4 With that and Chrism’s resurrection, according to the Bible, Peter and the other follower’s faith was strengthened; Christ then commanded them to ‘teach all nations. To observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you. ’45 Broaden also conceded his belief in McCarthy when he stated that he believed McCarthy was a ‘giant come out of the s KY to save us,’46 ND, at the end, he proceeded to spread the gospel in the corrupt land after he sees peed from the hospital. 47 He spreads the gospel by being the narrator for this book and telling of the story of McCarthy the savior. 8 Christ and McCarthy once again both succeed in helping the needy, resulting in the recognition of them as messengers in the employ of the Lord. Keyes finally draws this chapter of Musher’s mission to a close with his Last Fling a ND capture which are quite parallel to Chrism’s Last Supper and capture. Before Christ w as to die for his cause, as he had prophesied, he and the disciples had time to eat the Last Supper After that, he and the disciples went to Statement to pray, and he confided in them, saying, ‘My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, Merriment’s, Inc. , 1986), “Stitch’s,” p. 1121. 39 Keyes, pop. It. , up. 7677. Subfield, pop. Cit. , Luke 5: 45. 41 Ibid. , Matt. 14: 2431. 42 Keyes, pop. Cit. , p. 126. 43 Ibid. , p. 124. Subfield, pop. Cit. , Matt. 16: 1516. 45 Ibid. , Matt. 28: 1920. Keyes, pop. Cit. , p. 224. 47 Scares, pop. Cit. , p. 8. Keyes, pop. Cit. , p. 13. 49 Subfield, pop. Cit. , Matt. 26. Even unto death. ’50 Christ then went off to pray by himself, leaving the disciples standing guard. After Christ had returned and found them asleep a number of times, he had tried to wake them, but, meanwhile, the Chief Priests had been able to encroach upon their position in or deer to arrest Christ. 1 With them was Judas Chariot, one of the less faithful disciples, who betrayed Christ f or thirty pieces of silver by leading the priests to him. 52 Afterwards, Judas became very sorrowful over his deeds and went and hanged himself. 53 In a much similar fashion, McCarthy is given burial rite after Nurse Ratchet has sent him to the Disturbed ward for attacking the o orderlies. While awaiting Nurse Ratchet’s next move which ends up being electrotherapist for McCarthy the Disturbed ward nurse salves, or puts an ointment on, his knuckles which are bruin seed from the fight earlier. 4 his demise is also shown in McCarthy when, on the way back from the fishing trip, B roomed describes him as appearing ‘dreadfully tired and strained and frantic, like there was ‘t enough time left for something he had to do. 55 Musher’s ‘Last Supper’ was much more like a wild Last Fling than a reserved Passover dinner with the addition of beer, drugs, and prostitute s. As the night goes on, McCarthy, Orderly Turtle, and some other patients drink beer, smoke Arizona, and raid the medicine closet while the patient Billy Bit goes to a secluded room WI the a prostitute that McCarthy has provided.
With a plan in place that will allow Mumps why to escape and the patients to have an alibi for the mess in ward, McCarthy goes to sleep leave Eng Orderly Turtle standing guard; Turtle is supposed to wake McCarthy before the day shift arrives, but, much like what happened to Chrism’s disciples, the day shift finds him asleep amid the wreckage of the previous night’s party, allowing for the capture of the entire guilty party. 56 A parallel is drawn between Judas and Billy Bit when Nurse Ratchet finds Bit with the pros tithe. 7 He immediately blames McCarthy and the other patients for his doings the night before e, betraying them, and then cuts his neck after Nurse Ratchet has left him into the doctor’s office unattended. 58 As a result, Musher’s influence as a physical force ends there since the hospital finally subjects him to a lobotomy, but the liberation he has provided gives t he patients the will to go on under their own free will rather than under the control of the hospital al. The main part of Chrism’s mission was to inform and educate the people.
Amid the so Cilia injustices that the Pharisees and Chief Priests forced upon them daily, the people of I Israel merely followed along in quiet subservience. When Christ came, though, they listen d to his attacks on the Pharisees and their hypocrisy and false statements and, in response, t Pharisees began to plot the extermination of him. McCarthy, too, comes into the fee reinvested ward where Nurse Ratchet and her unjust rules are based on the Pharisees’ hypocrisy sees, as were made plain by Christ, and her servile patients are compared to Chrism’s follower