Jean-Jacques Rousseau 

 Jean-Jacques Rousseau was born June 28, 1712 in Geneva and died July2, 1778 in Ermenonville, France. He was a well-known philosopher of the Frenchenlightenment. He lived with his family in a poor house and received informaleducation at his own his, by his father.

He was trained to become an engraver ataround the age of 13. At about 16 years of age, Rousseau left his hometown andmoved to Paris in 1742. Whileliving there, he had to earn his living by working as everything from footmanto assistant to an ambassador.    Jean-Jacques Rousseau is considered one of thekey enlightenment philosophers. The foundation to philosophy that wasunconventional of any type of tradition, culture or religion was given byEnlightenment thinkers.

In the domain of science, this task has its underlyingfoundations in the introduction of present day rationality, in vast part withthe seventeenth century philosopher, René Descartes. As Abernethy said, “During theEnlightenment, there was more emphasis on scientific methods, secularization oflearning, religious tolerance, universal education, individual liberty, reason,progress and the separation of church and state.” Some key Enlightenmentconcepts are; Reason, scepticism, religious tolerance, liberty, progress andempiricism versus rationalism.  Inthe pre-edification stage, the cutting-edge middle-class society produced amultiplication of moralities that made a divided and untidy society and thisclarifies why Rousseau upheld an arrival to the ethically requestedpre-Enlightenment world.

 Inthe pre-Enlightenment world, similarly as the characteristic worldconfirmations a specific request and progression to it, so too the ethical,social and political universes all show a request to them. For Rousseau, thereis a continuum between the regular, social, moral and political universes withGod as the maker of the common world, the pater familias as the figure whoscreens and controls the family and the lawmaker as the figure who makes thelaws of the state. 

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