1. Rao. V. ( 1993 ) . The lifting monetary value of hubbies: A hedonistic analysis of dowery additions in rural India. Journal of Political Economy. 666-677. Motivation and aim: Attempts to look into the grounds behind the addition in dowery. Methods: It adapts Rosen’s inexplicit market theoretical account to the Indian matrimony market and trials anticipations from the theoretical account with informations from six small towns in South Central India and from the Indian nose count Theories: Using public-service corporation map. U is assumed to be maximized. given that U is the public-service corporation map which represent the family penchants. The map will be U = U ( X. W. H ) . Where Ten refers to ingestion of goods. W refers to the desirable traits of the bride and her household and H is traits of the groom. Chief Findingss: It is found that a “marriage squeeze” caused by population growing. ensuing in larger younger cohorts and therefore a excess of adult females in the matrimony market. has played a important function in the rise in doweries. ( Surplus of adult females over adult male at nubile ages )
2. Skogrand. L. M. . Schramm. D. G. . Marshall. J. P. . & A ; Lee. T. R. ( 2005 ) . The effects of debt on honeymooners and deductions for instruction. Journal of extension. 43 ( 3 ) . 1. Motivation and aim: Examines the relationship between newlywed debt. selected demographic variables. and newlywed degrees of matrimonial satisfaction and accommodation. . Methods: A 38-item study was mailed to a random sample of 2. 823 newlywed twosomes in a western province. The couples’ names were indiscriminately chosen from the matrimony licenses that were filed within the province during a six-month period. Husbands and married womans were asked to finish their studies individually. The response rate was 40 % . with 1. 010 twosomes reacting.
Theories and tools: Marital satisfaction was measured utilizing the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale ( KMSS ) ( Schumm et al. . 1986 ) . and matrimonial accommodation was measured utilizing the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale ( RDAS ) ( Busby. Crane. Christensen. & A ; Larson. 1995 ) . The KMSS and RDAS are established steps for measuring matrimonial satisfaction and accommodation. both holding correlativity coefficients above. 78. Chief Findingss: The findings from this survey indicate that come ining matrimony with consumer debt has a negative impact on newlywed degrees of matrimonial quality. The big bulk ( 70 % ) of honeymooners in this survey brought debt into their matrimony relationship. This sum of debt. along with other disbursals associated with twosomes get downing their lives together. are likely to deflect twosomes from the developmental undertaking of constructing a strong matrimony relationship during the first few months and old ages of matrimony Policy recommendation: . – Because many persons marry with no more than a high school instruction. educating persons about debt and its potentially negative impact on matrimony relationships should get down in high school. This may be one manner to assist twosomes accomplish healthier matrimonies 3. S. Dalmia ( 2004 ) . A hedonistic analysis of matrimony minutess in India: gauging determiners of doweries and demandfor groom features in matrimony. Research in Economics 58 ( 2004 ) 235–255. Motivation and aim: This paper uses informations from a retrospective sample study to develop and prove a model capable of explicating dowry exchange and groom choice in India.
Methods: Using a sample of 1037 families between 1956 and 1994. this paper develops and tests a model capable of explicating matrimony minutess and groom choice in India. Theories and tools: It adapts Rosen’s ( 1974 ) implicit market theoretical account and takes the position that dowery is a simple economic dealing that maps to ‘equalize’ the value of matrimony services exchanged by the families of the bride and groom. Chief Findingss: Consistent with ethnographic grounds. consequences indicate that doweries are higher in parts more to the North. Most significantly. contrary to popular belief. it is found that keeping groom features changeless. existent doweries have decreased over clip. Finally. in gauging the parametric quantities of the demand maps for a set of groom properties. consequences show that the most of import determiners of demand for assorted groom properties are monetary value of the property. bride’s traits. and the socio-economic position of the bride’s family 4. Siwan Anderson ( 2007 ) . The Economics of Dowry and Brideprice. Journal of Economic Perspectives—Volume 21. Number 4—Fall 2007—Pages 151–174
Motivation and aim: This paper foremost establishes some basic facts about the prevalence and magnitude of matrimony payments. It so discusses how such forms vary across states depending upon economic conditions. social constructions. establishments. and household features. Theories and tools: The descriptions of matrimony payments in this paper are synthesizedfrom a hodgepodge of surveies across periods. topographic points. and even epochs. and there are undoubtedly legion instances which remain undocumented. Discussion: Economists’ involvement in matrimony payments partially stems from their possible to impact the wealth distribution across coevalss and households.
However. economic analysis has non straight investigated these public assistance impacts of matrimony payments. In this regard. matrimony transportations which are destined for the twosome. either in the signifier of dowery or dowry. may work otherwise from those which are paid straight from one set of parents to the other. like bride monetary value or groom monetary value. The former payment is an intergenerational transportation. The latter signifiers a circulating fund. with reception for matrimonies of one gender being used to pay for matrimonies of kids of the other. 5. Sarwat Afzal & A ; Imtiaz Subhani ( 2009 ) . To Estimate An Equation Explaining The Determinants Of Dowry. Iqra University
Motivation and aim: The focal point of this survey is to gauge an equation explicating the determiners of dowery. Methods: The informations of 140 respondents is used to analyze the variables to find the dowery size. informations set on bride-groom features and dowery. The survey has been focused on analysis that dowery paid is dependent on which variables Subject in the rural subcontinent. Since the aim of survey is to gauge the equation explicating the determiner of doweries so all the variables given in the informations are takes as independent and the dowery paid is taken as dependent variable. Theories and tools: This paper determine the determiners of dowery. utilizing multiple arrested development analysis. the writer used the ANOVA tabular array. R2 value to table the determiners of dowry monetary value. Chief Findingss: This research suggested that dowery paid is based on the position and the richness of husband’s household every bit good as the instruction of the husband’s male parent that are the of import determiners of the incidence of doweries. The influence of husband’s male parent instruction is accounted as a forecaster for the system of dowery paid
6. Edlund. L. ( 2006 ) . The monetary value of matrimony: Net vs. gross flows and the South Asiatic dowery argument. Journal of the European Economic Association. 4 ( 2?3 ) . 542-551.
Motivation and aim: The rise in dowery payments in India has been taken as grounds that adult females progressively are at a disadvantage on the matrimony market and must pay for matrimony. Furthermore. high doweries. it is argued. add to the predicament of parents of girls and have therefore contributed to the scarceness of adult females ( brides ) . However. the logic is funny. and. this paper argues. flawed. The term “dowry” can intend different things. and it may be utile to separate between the assets the bride brings at the clip of matrimony ( gross dowery ) and those netted against the groom payments ( net dowery ) .
The former is what is by and large meant by dowery. while the latter is a construct used chiefly by economic experts Methods: Datas are from a retrospective study of matrimonies conducted in 1983 by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi- Arid Tropics ( ICRISAT ) . These informations have been used in a figure of surveies of South Asiatic dowery rising prices. ICRISAT conducted a graded random sample of 40 families each from six small towns in South-central India. The first family married in 1923 and the last in 1978. Chief Findingss: Empirically. the paper has shown that in a much-used information set on dowry rising prices. net doweries did non increase in the period after 1950. contradicting claims of “recent” additions. Furthermore. variables designed to capture marriage-squeeze or male comparative to female heterogeneousness failed to travel doweries in the expected way.
7. Balwick. J. ( 1975 ) . The map of the dowery system in a quickly modernizing society: The instance of Cyprus. International Journal of Sociology of the Family. 158-167.
Motivation and aim: The intent of this paper is to analyze the functional relationship between the dowery system and modernisation for the state of Cyprus. Two illations tried to be drawn in this paper are attempt to develop is two 1 ) the dowery system has served a latent map in promoting a rapid rate of urban. Industrial. and technological development in Cyprus ; and ( 2 ) that the rapid rate of technological development in Cyprus. along with new constructs of matrimonial agreement. are weakening the importance of the dowery system Methods: The analysis of this paper’s subject will get down by sing the map of the dowery system in Traditional Greek Cypriot society. move to a consideration of the map of the dowery system during rapid modernisation. bend to a consideration of the consequence of modernisation upon the dowery system. and conclude by theorizing as to the possible consequence which a diminution in the dowery system will hold upon matrimony.
Chief Findingss: modernisation is a menace to the continued being of the dowery system. The statement was made that. besides the major facets of modernisation themselves. the construct of romantic love. as a by-product of a mostly western stimulated modernisation procedure. has been damaging to the dowery system. However. to so theorize about the future effects of modernisation in Cyprus merely points to the necessity for societal scientists to use the state of affairss created in developing states to farther analyze the relationships between modernisation and societal constructions.
8. Gaulin. S. J. . & A ; Boster. J. S. ( 1990 ) . Dowry as female competition. American Anthropologist. 92 ( 4 ) . 994-1005.
Motivation and aim: The intent of this paper is to turn out that dowery as a generative maneuver used by prospective brides and their family to pull the wealthiest bridegroom. The writers attempt to explicate non merely the rareness of dowery. but besides why it occurs in the societies it does. Methods and theories: The analysis of this paper’s subject will get down by sing the female-competition theoretical account. The female-competition theoretical account assumes that. in Homosexual sapiens as in other animate beings. the behaviours associated with brace formation can be interpreted as ( perchance unconscious ) generative tactics. The writers interpret the prejudice in matrimony minutess as reflecting a prejudice in competition for matrimony spouses. Dowry is their dependent variable ; the independent variables in the female-competition theoretical account are societal stratification and matrimonial signifier. They grouped the bing classs to make dichotomous variable. Chief Findingss: The female-competition theoretical account is right ; the writers would anticipate the largest dowery payments to flux from the in-between category to the elite. as adult females in the in-between grade compete for hubbies in the highest
9. Rao. V. ( 1993 ) . Dowry ‘inflation’ in rural India: A statistical probe. Population Studies. 47 ( 2 ) . 283-293.
Motivation and aim: The writer of this paper expression more straight at the causes of the addition of dowery ( look into the grounds behind the rise in the existent value of doweries in rural India ) and use alone informations collected from a little sample of families by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics ( ICRISAT ) . Methods and theories: The informations used in this paper are from a random sample of 40 families. 30 cultivating and 10 laboring. per small town. from six small towns in three territories of rural South-central India. The studies were conducted by ICRISAT. the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 15 The territories are Akola and Sholapur in Maharashtra province. and Mahbubnagar in Andhra Prades. A quadratic specification of dowery determiners is estimated. Correlations values between variables. OLS. and other statistical tools are being used. Chief Findingss: The empirical consequences back up the hypothesis that the matrimony squeezing has played a important portion in doing dowery ‘inflation’ .
The size of the dowery transportation besides seems to be affected by hyper gamy. indicated by the difference in the sum of land owned by the parents of the several partners before the matrimony. Due to the little size of the sample and the respondents’ deficiency of truth in describing their ages at matrimony. non much can be said about the impact of age or other possible determiners on the transportation. At the territory degree. nevertheless. the matrimony squeezing does look to count in cut downing differences in the ages at matrimony of work forces and adult female. 10. Teays. W. ( 1991 ) . The firing bride: The dowery job in India. Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion. 29-52. Motivation and aim: The writer see the issue of dowery. its roots in usage and spiritual tradition. every bit good the ways in which the dowery system has become a dowery job with day-to-day doweries deceases. normally of immature and frequently pregnant adult females. Chief Findingss: Females being devalued in the Hindu universe.
The internalisation of that devaluation is evidenced by the Numberss of mothers-in-law and sisters-in-law who actively participate in dowry slaying. Marriage has become a commercial dealing complete with bargaining. Traditionally doweries were limited by convention and caste-social worlds. but now the demands are out of control. “The turning tendency of dowery slayings merely reflects the socio-economic crisis in India. 11. Zhang. J. . & A ; Chan. W. ( 1999 ) . Dowry and Wife’s Welfare: A Theotrical and Empirical Analysis. Journal of Political Economy. 107 ( 4 ) . 786-808.
Motivation and aim: This paper offers an alternate analysis. Where dowery are claimed to be non merely increases the wealth of the new connubial family but besides enhances the bargaining power of the bride in the allotment of end product within that family. thereby safeguarding her public assistance. 2 hypotheses: Dowry increases the resources available to the bride’s new household ; Dowry increases the bride bargaining place in the household. every bit good as her public assistance.
Methods and theories: This survey uses informations from the 1989 Taiwan Women and Family Survey. an island broad chance study of adult females aged 25–60 old ages of all matrimonial positions and from different geographical locations. The female respondents provide socioeconomic information on their parents. their hubbies. and themselves. An of import characteristic of the information is that these adult females study transportations on doweries and bride monetary values related to their matrimonies. All these variables are so measured utilizing statistical tools. Main Findingss: The consequence supported the theoretical anticipation that a dowery improves the wife’s public assistance through both income and bargaining effects. The consequence besides shows that a dowery is so a belongings under the wife’s control. Bride-price reduces the dealing cost involved in retrieving the appropriate portions of matrimonial end product by each party. a dowery enhances the bride’s place in the family and precautions her public assistance.
12. Bishai. D. . Falb. K. L. . Pariyo. G. . & A ; Hindin. M. J. ( 2009 ) . Bride monetary value and sexual hazard taking in Uganda. African diary of generative wellness. 13 ( 1 ) . Motivation and aim: This survey assessed the relationship of bride monetary value to sexual hazard taking based on a big. population based study. Methods and theories: Datas were collected on bride monetary values for 592 married adult females in 12 territories in Uganda in 2001. Controling for covariates. we found that holding had a bride monetary value significantly lowered the wife’s odds of sexual intercourse with a spouse other than the partner ( OR= 0. 222 ; 95 % CI= 0. 067. 0. 737 ) . Controling for covariates. bride monetary value increased the husband’s odds of non-spousal sexual intercourse ( OR=1. 489 ; 95 % CI= 0. 746. 2. 972 ) . Chief Findingss: Bride monetary value payment is statistically significantly associated with lower rates of non-spousal sexual contact in adult females. but is non. statistically significantly associated with higher rates in work forces
13. Dalmia. S. . & A ; Lawrence. P. G. ( 2005 ) . The establishment of dowery in India: Why it continues to predominate. The Journal of Developing Areas. 38 ( 2 ) . 71-93.
Motivation and aim: This article through empirical observation examines doweries in India and provides an institutional and economic principle for the being and continued prevalence of the system. Chief Findingss: Using informations on matrimony minutess and on the personal and household traits of matrimonial spouses the article demonstrates that payments of dowry service to equalise the mensurable differences in single features of the bride’s and groom’s and their several families. Therefore. dowry qualifies as the “price” paid for a “good match” in the matrimony market. Results besides reveal that the signifier of heritage system. the abode of the bride after matrimony. and the gender ratio of nubile adult females to work forces have no consequence on the incidence and size of dowery
14. Diamond?Smith. N. . Luke. N. . & A ; McGarvey. S. ( 2008 ) . ‘Too many misss. excessively much dowry’ : boy penchant and girl antipathy in rural Tamil Nadu. India. Culture. wellness & A ; gender. 10 ( 7 ) . 697-708. Motivation and aim: The southern Indian province of Tamil Nadu has experienced a dramatic diminution in birthrate. accompanied by a tendency of increased boy penchant. This paper reports on findings from qualitative interviews with adult females in rural small towns about their birthrate decision-making which is due to the dowery rate. Main Findingss: Findingss suggest that girl antipathy. fuelled chiefly by the sensed economic load of girls due to the proliferation of dowery. is playing a larger function in birthrate decision-making than boy penchant.
15. Rozario. S. ( 2002 ) . Grameen Bank-style microcredit: Impact on dowery and women’s solidarity. Development Bulletin. 57. 67-70.
Motivation and aim: This article focuses on two specific jobs connected with Grameen Bank-style microcredit in Bangladesh: its negative impact on women’s solidarity. and its effects for the pattern of dowery payments. Main Findingss: Findingss suggest that Unmarried adult females are non accepted in the microcredit samities and so can non have loans. The statement is that they will acquire married and travel off to their husbands’ small town. so who will refund their loan? This denies any chance to fringy groups. like single adult females and. of class. widows and abandoned adult females. Such policies besides mean that single adult females are made wholly dependent financially on the clemency of their households.
16. Kazi Abdur Rouf. ( 2012 ) “A feminist reading of Grameen Bank Sixteen Decisions campaign” . Humanomics. Vol. 28 Iodine: 4. pp. 285 – 296. Motivation and aim: The intent of this paper is to look at Grameen Bank ( GB ) Sixteen Decisions runs and its deductions to feminism ; and to analyze the grade to which adult females borrowers of the Grameen Bank are empowered to take part in familial decision-making around dowery and teenage matrimony and to develop their public infinites in the community.
Furthermore. the paper critically looks at the GB adult females borrowers’ development through the Sixteen Decisions Design/methodology/approach – The survey uses multiple research methods. It reviews and analyzes GB Sixteen Decision texts and feminist literature. uses study method to roll up informations from Grameen Bank micro borrowers in 2011 and uses secondary informations. Main Findingss: This survey still finds the gender equality issues exist in the Grameen Bank Sixteen Decisions texts and the Sixteen Decisions run schemes for adult females borrowers’ authorization particularly due to the issue of dowery. Policy Recommendation: This critical analysis is really of import to authorise Grameen Bank adult females borrowers because the run should be made more effectual in turn toing women’s issues like dowry-less matrimony.
Grameen Bank should revise the Sixteen Decisions texts and support borrowers in their anti-dowry and anti-teen age matrimony run in Bangladesh. 17. Tenhunen. S. ( 2008 ) . The gift of money: rearticulating tradition and market economic system in rural West Bengal. Modern Asiatic Studies. 42 ( 5 ) . 1035-1055. Motivation and aim: This article examines the rise of dowery system injanta. a West Bengali small town in the Bankura territory. where the dowery payments are a comparatively new phenomenon. The oldest coevals in Janta had experienced times when no demands for money or other gifts had been made during matrimony agreements. but since the 1950S immense dowery payments have become the cardinal fiscal minutess in the part. In add-on to unwritten history interviews on dowery patterns. the writer draws from his research on the alterations in caste. gender and category relationships in the small town. Findingss: The gift of money does non simply represent category and economic individualities. instead. its debut is connected to a Reconstruction of gender and caste individualities as good.
The article demonstrates how the giving of money has influenced other classs of gifts. while the market logic has drawn from cultural considerations. Yet. money is non the lone agent in the procedure ; gifts are basically about building societal and cultural individualities: the interrelated spheres of gender. affinity. caste and category. The debut of the pecuniary gift has made it possible to do connexions and put a monetary value on different facets of personhood facilitating and escalating the connexions between different discourses on personhood. 18. Shenk. M. K. ( 2007 ) . Dowry and public policy in modern-day India. Human Nature. 18 ( 3 ) . 242-263.
Motivation and aim: . This paper argues that a functionalist position on dowery could take to improved dowery policy. and that an attack based in human behavioural ecology ( HBE ) is unambiguously suited to this undertaking. Design/methodology/approach – The writer develop a behavioural ecology theoretical account of Indian dowery and trial it with quantitative and qualitative informations Main Findingss: The writer conclude that if dowry statute law is to accomplish wide support or convey approximately effectual societal alteration. it must turn to and back up the positive motives for and effects of dowery and take a targeted attack to dowry force. which is non uniformly distributed across parts. castes. or societal
19. Rao. V. P. . & A ; Rao. V. N. ( 1980 ) . The dowery system in Indian matrimonies: attitudes. outlooks and patterns. International Journal of Sociology of the Family. 99-113. .
Motivation and aim: The survey examined the students’ outlooks of dowery for individuals with different educational background. their attitudes and feelings about the dowery system. and the patterns of dowery payments in immediate and blood-related households Design/methodology/approach – The questionnaire method was used to roll up informations from a sample of 585 college pupils from India Main Findings The survey revealed that the mean dowry outlook were non consistent With the figure of old ages of instruction but were in line with the prestigiousness of instruction. Non-Hindus. metropolitan occupants. high socioeconomic position pupils. and medical pupils expected higher dowery than their opposite numbers.
The bulk of the respondents considered dowry unimportant in settling a matrimony and felt that the present dowery system should be discontinued. However. most of the respondents’ brothers received dowry while their households gave doweries to their sisters. The blood-related households besides practiced dowry payment at the clip of matrimony. The pupils seemed equalitarian in footings of control over the dowery as most believed that both hubby and married woman should make up one’s mind how to pass it. Inconsistency in the attitudes are besides observed as three-quarterss of the sample considered dowry unimportant in the colony of a matrimony but about tierce of the males and 40 per cent of their parents expected to have dowery when the respondents got married.
20. Freed. R. S. . & A ; Freed. S. A. ( 1989 ) . Beliefs and patterns ensuing in female deceases and fewer females than males in India. Population and Environment. 10 ( 3 ) . 144-161. Motivation and aim: . A penchant for boies and the low position of females are implicated in the preponderance of males over females as reported in each nose count of India from the first one taken in the nineteenth century. A figure of cultural patterns. some of which are rather ancient. are involved in this such as sexual instability and dowery slaying. This treatment is sees the determiners of female deceases in India. Design/methodology/approach – This treatment is based both on 19th and twentieth century beginnings and on fieldwork conducted in the North Indian small town of Shanti Nagar in 1958–59 and 1977–78. Findingss: It is found that dowry act as one of the determiners that resulted in female deceases which is more normally known as Dowry Murder Policy Recommendation: The modern Government of India has sought to get rid of dowery which would. presumptively. set an terminal to dowry slaying.