In the first lesson of the discipline of Business English, students were asked to discuss and submit brief answers the following questions:1. Define a Manager2. Define Management3. Define an Administrator4. What is the difference between them?5. What are the key activities of a Manager?Various answers were given and were grouped so that each student make comments arguing or supporting the ideas presented in class. It is in this perspective that the following is the questions raised and the answers given and also my position in relation to these answers. 1.
Define a Manager Answer 1: A person who thinks about Strategic Planning. This answer is very generic and doesn’t fit into Manager’s responsibility.Development of Strategic Planning is a collegial process that should involve as appropriate: * those who will be implementing the plan (e. . management, staff, volunteers); * those who will be affected (e. g.
members, users, etc); * those who will monitor its implementation (e. g. Management Committee); and * Others who can contribute to its development (e.
g. community activists, funding bodies, etc). Answer 2: A person who works through the people to achieve organizational goals. This answer is applicable for management concept as indicated by Gomez-Mejia, Luis R. ; David B. Balkin and Robert L.
Cardy (2008) who defined management as “the art of getting things done through people”.Answer 3: A person responsible for achieving goals Answer 4: A person with ability to lead people to achieve aims Answer 5: A person who combines resources to achieve certain objective The three answers include some relevant aspects in the manager’s responsibilities such as planning, coordination, and leadership, however, an incomplete. According to Robert N.
Lussier(2003), a manager is responsible for achieving organization objectives through efficient and effective use of resources. Efficient refers to doing things right. Effective refers to doing the right thing.For this author a Manager is the person who plans, organizes, leads, coordinate, and controls resources to achieve organizational objectives through others. To conclude, Managers are not only responsible for Planning, Organizing, Leading and Evaluating but also Manage and Inspire complex teams having different aspirations and coming from different social and cultural, economic and ethnic background. Levels of management Robert N. Lussier(2003) indicate three management levels: first-level, middle-level, and top-level managers.
These managers are classified in a hierarchy of authority, and perform different tasks. In many organizations, the number of managers in every level resembles a pyramid. Each level is explained below in specifications of their different responsibilities and likely job titles.
Top-level managers Consists of board of directors, president, vice-president, CEOs, etc. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization. They develop goals, strategic plans, company policies, and make decisions on the direction of the business.In addition, top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources and are accountable to the shareholders and general public.
According to Lawrence S. Kleiman, the following skills are needed at the top managerial level. * Broadened understanding of how: competition, world economies, politics, and social trends effect organizational effectiveness.
Top management’s role is: * Lay down the objectives and broad policies of the enterprise. * Issues necessary instructions for preparation of department budgets, procedures, schedules, etc. Prepares strategic plans and policies for the enterprise.* Appoint middle level executives, i. e. , departmental managers. * Controls and coordinate activities of all departments. * Maintain contact with the outside world.
* Provides guidance and direction. * Answer to shareholders for the performance of the enterprise. Middle-level managers Consist of general managers, branch managers and department managers. They are accountable to the top management for their department’s function.
They devote more time to organizational and directional functions.Their roles can be emphasized as executing organizational plans in conformance with the company’s policies and the objectives of the top management, they define and discuss information and policies from top management to lower management, and most importantly they inspire and provide guidance to lower level managers towards better performance. Their functions include: * Design and implement effective group and inter-group work and information systems. * Define and monitor group-level performance indicators. * Diagnose and resolve problems within and among work groups.Design and implement reward systems that support cooperative behavior. First-level managers Consist of supervisors, section leads, foremen, etc. They focus on controlling and directing.
They usually have the responsibility of assigning employees tasks, guiding and supervising employees on day-to-day activities, ensuring quality and quantity production, making recommendations, suggestions, and up channeling employee problems, etc. First-level managers are role models for employees that provide: * Basic supervision * Motivation * Career planning * Performance feedback . Define Management Answer 1: A way to implement plans This answer is not correct. The implementation of plan is responsibility of all people (management, staff) in organization. However, planning is one of five management functions. Answer 2: Deal with resource of the company and objectives The answer is not concise. The term “Deal with resource of the company” is vague it can involve management and nonmanagement functions. Answer 3: Act to achieve goals using plans, coordinating and monitoring activities Answer 4: process to combine resources to achieve goalsThis answers although contains some fundamentals elements of management, in the essence, they are not complete.
Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal.Answer 5: process of using rules, procedures to ensure adequate functioning of organization This answer correspond to one of the five management functions, Controlling which is the process of establishing and implementing mechanisms to ensure that the organization achieves its objectives.
3. Define an Administrator Answer 1: A person who implements orders/plans from the management Answer 2: A person who does administrative operations takes into account manager’s decisions The administrator doesn’t receive orders or plans from management.The administrator oversees and controls the all business. According to Theo Haimann, “Administration means overall determination of policies, setting of major objectives, the identification of general purposes and lying down of broad programmes and projects”. It refers to the activities of higher level. It lays down basic principles of the enterprise.
According to Newman, “Administration means guidance, leadership & control of the efforts of the groups towards some common goals”.Whereas, management involves conceiving, initiating and bringing together the various elements; coordinating, actuating, integrating the diverse organizational components while sustaining the viability of the organization towards some pre-determined goals. In other words, it is an art of getting things done through & with the people in formally organized groups. Answer 3 and 5: The administrator is the same as a manager (small company) but responsible for decision making, strategic planning and policies Answer 5: Responsible for major decisions and policies/oversees the managers The dministrators in the business can be board of directors, CEO’s, who are given different duties according to their rank, keeping the goal of the business in mind. The main tasks that are performed by administrators are: * Planning for current time and for future * Organising the resources by recruitment * Making budgets for running the business * Giving directions to the personnel by making plans * Controlling the workforce to achieve maximum output A Manager is the person responsible for planning and directing the work of a group of individuals, monitoring their work, and taking corrective action when necessary.A manager’s title reflects what he/she is responsible for. An Accounting Manager supervises the Accounting function.
There are many management functions in business and, therefore, many manager titles. Regardless of title, the manager is responsible for planning, directing, monitoring and controlling the people and their work. Theo Haimann (1970) summarizes the difference between Management and Administration in the following way: On the Basis of Functions: – Basis| Management| Administration|Meaning| Management is an art of getting things done through others by directing their efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals. | It is concerned with formulation of broad objectives, plans ; policies. | Nature| Management is an executing function.
| Administration is a decision-making function. | Process| Management decides who should as it ; how should he do it. | Administration decides what is to be done ; when it is to be done. | Function| Management is a doing function because managers get work done under their supervision. | Administration is a thinking function because plans ; policies are determined under it. Skills| Technical and Human skills| Conceptual and Human skills | Level| Middle ; lower level function| Top level function| Author: Theo Haimann Practically, there is no difference between management ; administration.
Every manager is concerned with both – administrative management function and operative management function as shown in the figure. However, the managers who are higher up in the hierarchy denote more time on administrative function ; the lower level denote more time on directing and controlling worker’s performance i. e. management.