Why is it that women love perfumes as much as men love cars? According to (Smith and Wade, 2008) “There are studies that most of women’s reason for loving perfume is because of the pheromones their bodies produce. Often these scents or perfumes trigger the increase of how much pheromone a woman’s body will produce” (p. 12) In studies carried out, nearly 80% of all women will make a perfume purchase at least each year. Not only does smelling great make a woman feel good about herself, but it will make her feel attractive also. Roses have been around and are documented longer than most of our garden plants.
The earliest record of them seems to be rose leaves found in the Colorado Rockies, dating back 35 to 32 million years to the Paleolithic era. First mention of them, and their appearance in artistic motifs, was in Asia about 3000BC, with mention elsewhere about 2300 BC (Perry, 1998). Roses are one of the most popular floral notes in perfumes due to its pleasant scent and staying power. The rose has many connotations; it is considered elegant, expensive and attractive. French perfumes – Joy perfume and Chanel No. 5 were the early best-sellers containing rose. Rosa Berberifolia was associated with the Greeks and Romans as they moved to Rome.
It’s said that the Greeks were the first to make liquid perfume, although it wasn’t anything like today’s perfume (Kenneth, 2000, p. 21-22). In order to make their perfume, they used a mixture of fragrant powders and heavy oils – no alcohol. According to Lord (1992), the Greeks loved to bathe with these fragrant oils, men and women alike, and they used them on all parts of their bodies, both before and after their baths. On the other hand, this practice was rampant in the Roman baths, where there would be all kinds of jars and pots of fragrant oils, in all shapes and sizes.
The Romans bathed three times a day, so they needed to keep lots on hand. Review of Related Literature The composition of any perfume starts with base perfume oils, which are natural, animal or synthetic, and are then watered down with a solvent to make them light and applicable. Unfortunately, perfume oils in either pure or undiluted form, can cause damage to skin, or an allergic reaction, so the adding of solvent is necessary to make them less potent. “The most prevalent solvent used in the manufacturing of perfumes is Ethanol” (Green, 1991, p. 53).
This literature review will consider each factor considering the use of Rosa Berberifolia as perfume scent. Manufacture of perfume is smooth and profitable. In fact, according to Smith and Wade (2006), research has shown that you can actually make a 100 bottles of perfume for less than $300, and then, if you want, sell them for up to $50 each. Many people have settled for this business not just because it’s easy income but also require less effort in selling. One of the essential parts in manufacturing perfume is the material used for the process.
Plants are the oldest source for obtaining fragrant oil compounds from, and the parts used the most are the flowers and blossoms. But other plant parts, which can also be considered for use in perfume making, are “leave, twigs, roots, rhizomes, bulbs, seeds, fruit, wood, bark and lichens”(Agustin, 1984, p. 486). Furthermore, another source of fragrant oil is from animals and other synthetic materials. The main ingredient for producing rose scent from Rose (Rosa Berberifolia) uses “Rose oil extracts often seen as “attar of roses” or “rose otto” trough steam distillation , was probably first made in 10th century Persia.
This was the first import of roses to Europe, leading to the subsequent growing of the plants there” (Perry, 1998). Rosa Berberifolia is associated to have different scents. Perry (1998) stated that the seven main rose scents are rose (or damask), nasturtium, orris (which is similar to violets), violets, apple, clove, and lemon (the fruit, not the blossoms). Orris is a compound used to fix or preserve odours. Then there are 26 other less common odours you may smell in roses. These include such diverse ones as honeysuckle, moss, hyacinth, honey, wine, marigold, peppers, parsley, and fruits such as raspberry.
In addition, “roses with the best scents are darker colours, have more petals, and have thick or velvety petals” (Green, 1991, p. 53) Red and pink roses often smell like what we term “rose”. White and yellows often smell of violets, nasturtium, and lemon. Orange roses often smell of fruits, violets, nasturtium, and clove (Perry, 1998). A lot wonder why the some perfumes last and others don’t. Lord (1992) concluded that a scent not only changes over time, but with time of day. Early morning is when scents are strongest, the oils most powerful, and so when roses are harvested for rose oil.
Rose scent may be more powerful with the first blooms of summer. Rose scent even can change from outdoors to indoors. Just the cutting can change the chemical releases that we smell, so a rose not very fragrant outdoors may be quite scented once in a vase inside. Hence, perfumes are classified as to where it is best used. Most true rose oil comes from Bulgaria, Morocco, Iran, Turkey, and more recently from China. The oil is extracted from the petals either with alcohol or through distillation. “The true oil is very expensive as it takes about 250 pounds of petals to make a mere ounce of oil” (Hester,1998).
For this reason, rose oil is often diluted with similarly scented oils such as geraniol from geraniums, or even the synthetic phenylethanol. While fine for fragrance uses, and excellent for making them affordable, if using rose oil medicinally you need the true oil and not a product marked “fragrance”. The manufacture process of perfume begins with collection. According to Dorman (2007), The initial ingredients must be brought to the manufacturing center. Plant substances are harvested from around the world, often hand-picked for their fragrance.
Animal products are obtained by extracting the fatty substances directly from the animal. Aromatic chemicals used in synthetic perfumes are created in the laboratory by perfume chemists (p. 89-92). Also, in this process, the quality control of material takes place. Significance of Study The focus of this study is to discover a particular perfume for a specific person that makes them smell good and feel better about themselves. While a perfume can help increase the production of a one’s person pheromone levels, they are also liked by everybody because of the attention they get from a member of the opposite sex.
In addition, this study focuses on the distinct characteristics of Rosa Berberifolia (Rose) why it is considered as elegant, expensive and attractive. Also, the different methods of extraction will be exposed to determine the most effective method that could be used with a minimal damage to the component of the oil scent. The special manufacturing processes involved in achieving the perfect scent and the restrictions and limitations of the each process in obtaining the rose extracts. Scope and Limitation The first issue tackled in this study is the manufacturing processes involved in producing a high quality of rose scent perfume.
How each and other process differ but likewise produces a high grade of rose oil. In addition, the origin of the perfume industry is studied, to how it has started and progressed. The flaws and inconsistency of mixing fragrances, the effectiveness of equipments used, and the economic consideration of rose petals. Lastly is the different scent of roses and how they are achieved and produced. The factors that must take to consideration for the perfume to last, in order for it to be not too strong for the nose and the variety of roses that is preferable and produces the desired fragrance.