Many students in the world receive instruction in an English language other than their first language. Some have emigrated from their home country to another with a different language. An increasing number find it necessary or desirable to go to an overseas institution for secondary or tertiary education (Altbach, 1989). Often students studying in their home countries, especially African developing countries and former British colonies are taught in an English language other than their native language (Gallagher, 1989). In Somaliland In terms of colony, people use English as a medium of instruction in secondary and tertiary education and the government re-established this system when Somaliland announced that restored its independence in May 1991.
Teaching methods is seen to be an instrument that can be used by a nation to develop and equip students to achieve rapid economic, social and cultural development. This is the reason that the Somaliland government has an education policy which includes improvement of teachers in order to be equipped in different teaching methods because generally teaching methods are the ways of learning and that can help students to acquire in formations, ideas, skills, values, ways of thinking and means of expressing themselves and The most effective teaching methods which includes Somaliland Education policy are Lecture, discussion, individual presentation, role play, case study, seminar or workshop, translation and Assignment methods(MOE, 1996).
Situation Analysis of Somaliland National Development Plan in 2012-2016 indicated the challenges faced in secondary and Tertiary education are:
1. Limited classrooms facilities
2. Lack of special education provisions
3. Limited English Language Proficiency
4. Insufficient qualified teachers
5. Low teacher remuneration
6. Lack of specialized teacher training institutions
The Specific National aims and Objectives of Educational Policy in 2011 is to:
1. Upgrade policies, rules and legal framework
2. Develop universities capacity
3. Initiate teacher training College programs
4. Introduce a new university inspection program that is holistic covers all aspects of university and student achievements
5. Design structured and continuous professional development courses for practicing teachers.
6. Develop English language proficiency of universities’ students
English language studies of universities came in the colonial era when government made policy that a medium of instruction of secondary and tertiary education is English Language.
English is a widespread and important language in the world today because it’s the only language is used for everything such as an international business, diplomacy, science and the academic professions, it’s also commonly used as Information Computer Technologies, 80% of computer data are processed and stored English language. ( Donisha University,2005).
Hargeisa universities are thirteen, one for public and twelve for Private Universities and all of them are under the control of the government and National Commission of Higher Education, sector under ministry of Education in Somaliland. All these universities whether its public or private English language proficiency of students are poor and the qualities of teaching methods in English language teaching is also insufficient.
For the last 10 years, teaching methods of universities are poor, the lecturers are not well equipped to teaching methods, teaching aids are not also available. According to English language assessment paper of University of Hargeisa (2009) suggested that English language ability of the students are very low and poor communication are exist in the class participations, English presentations are very rare in the class, English speaking is not possible in the university campus and even the outside communication is all Somali language, this survey recommended to improve the teaching methods of the universities in order to enable an English language proficiency of university students and suggested to examine the problem.
The policy of government now is English language proficiency of university students must be well and to have ability to write, read, listen and speak English Language fluently.
The study of English language in public and private universities in Somaliland has many problems, which are supposed to be examined.