Because the mean is calculated and mean is the best measure of central tendency when the data of interval or ratio scale. * 2. What was the mean posttest empowerment score for the control group? The mean posttest empowerment score for the control group is 97. 12. * 3. Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer. The mean baseline score for depression is 14. 00 and mean posttest depression scores is 13. 6 of the experimental group. The mean depression score is smaller for post test in the experimental group and this is expected because we want to reduce the depression with respect to the treatment we are giving to the subjects or patients. * 4. Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the control group.

Do these scores strengthen or weaken the validity of the research results? Provide a rationale for your answer. The mean baseline score for depression is 10. 40 and mean posttest depression scores is 10. 0 of the control group. The mean depression score is same for post test in the control group and these results strengthen the validity of the results because we can say that there is no significant decrease in the depression scores for posttest as compare to baseline. We can say that there is no significant difference in the baseline mean score and posttest mean depression score in control group. * 5. Which group’s test scores had the least amount of variability or dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.

In terms of comparisons of groups the experimental group had the least amount of variability or dispersion because all the experimental groups with respect to different outcomes, the standard deviation is minimum as compare to control groups. In terms of different variable, the Empowerment group’s test scores had the least amount of variability or dispersion because the standard deviation for baseline as well as for posttest is smaller as compare to any other group’s test scores. * 6. did the empowerment variable or self-care self-efficacy variable demonstrate the greatest amount of dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The self-care self-efficacy variable demonstrate the greatest amount of dispersion as compare to empowerment group because the standard deviation is higher in self-care self-efficacy group. * 7. The mean (Median) is a measure of location (central tendency) of a distribution while the SD is a measure of scale (variability) of its scores. Both mean and SD are measure of descriptive statistics. * 8. What was the mean severity for renal disease for the research subjects? What was the dispersion or variability of the renal disease severity scores? Did the severity scores vary significantly between the control and the experimental groups?

Is this important? Provide a rationale for your answer. The mean severity for renal disease for the research subjects is increased after the treatment in both the experimental and control group but there is only a slight increase in the mean value for control group which does not seem significant. If we look at the overall mean score of baseline and posttest we can say that the posttest mean score is increased with less variability. The severity scores vary significantly between the control and the experimental groups because there is a significant increase in the posttest scores in experimental group with less variation.

It is important because it can justify the fact that there is a significant increase in the posttest mean scores for renal disease in the experimental group as compare to the control group. * 9. Which variable was least affected by the empowerment program? Provide a rationale for your answer. The Self-care self-efficacy variable is least affected by the empowerment program because there is a small difference between the means scores in the experimental and control group and the variability is higher as compare to any other variable. 10. Was it important for the researchers to include the total means and SDs for the study variables in Table 2 to promote the readers’ understanding of the study results? Provide a rationale for your answer. Total means and SDs are the important source of information if we want to compare the variable or outcome of interest, we can compare which outcome has the higher variability or lower variability.