Migle Mikalajunaite Biology Essay

One chromosome in the pair is inherited from the other; one from the father. Different forms of the same gene are called alleles, they can be dominant or recessive, and they arise when DNA code mutates. These DNA code mutations can be neutral and show no effect in human; it may be beneficial; but also it can cause a disease. Different diseases are being inherited through different patterns. Huntington disease is inherited through Autocross dominant pattern; cystic fibrosis – through autocross recessive; Retest’s syndrome – through X-Linked Dominant; Hemophilia A – through X-Linked recessive [ref.

Hide Chill, Ph. D; 2008] It s important to know inheritance patterns to acknowledge how disease is transmitted, also to predict the risk of recurrence for relatives. Figure 1: Autocross dominant disorder A disease or disorder can be inherited in an autocross dominant pattern (Figure 1). One abnormal gene, which is located on one of the 22 non-sex determining chromosomes, from one of the parents, will lead to inheriting a disorder. [ref. Genetics Basics – Lesson 3] It happens because of dominant mutant allele condition.

Each individual’s peril is independent and there is risk of 50% to inherit abnormal NNE, as affected person is carrying one copy of normal gene and one copy of mutant gene. Individuals who do not inherit the mutant allele, will not have a chance of passing the disease. [ref. Freer WAG, Gazebo P, Stevens ENG] Huntington disease is one example of autocross dominant disorder. This condition is caused by mutations arisen in the HTH gene, which is responsible for protein Huntington make, which plays an active role in brain nerve cell.

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CAGE tetrachloride (DNA segment) repeat is involved in the HTH mutation. This segment is built up of multiplying cytosine, adenine and guanine blocks. Under normal conditions, the DNA segment manifests 10-35 times through the gene, while in Huntington disease the DNA segment manifests 36-120 or even more times. This change leads to the making of aberrant long Huntington protein, which is cut into smaller, but toxic snatches that gather together in neurons while disturbing neurons functions.

In other words, this will cause an uncontrolled movements, problems with expressing emotions, and ability to think. [ref. Genetics Home Reference. 2014] Figure 2: Autocross recessive disorder Autocross recessive disorder is one more way for a disease or disorder to be inherit De t (Figure . For recessive conditions to appear, an individual NAS to inherit two copies of abnormal gene. People with one of the mutant allele in the pair does not develop the condition, but are carriers of the mutation and risk of passing the disorder through the family remains.

There is 25% chance of getting the abnormal gene from two carriers and develop the disease as there is 25% to remain unaffected. Although, there is 50% risk to inherit Just one mutant allele and become a carrier off disease. [ref. Freer WAG, Gazebo P, Stevens ENG] Cystic fibrosis is one of many disease, inherited in an autocross recessive pattern. This disease is caused by mutations in the CUFF gene, which is involved in making a channels for transportation of chloride ions in to and out of cells. Chloride ions plays an important role in cells, controlling the movement of water within tissues.

Mutation of the CUFF gene would disturb normal function of the channels of chloride. In a result of that, cells produce mucus that is abnormally thick and sticky, it plugs airways and different ducts, which ends up in cystic fibrosis, which may lead damage of the respiratory system and gastrointestinal system problems. [ref. Genetics Home Reference. 2012] Figure 3: Sex- linked dominant disorder Sex-linked dominant disorder arise when a single abnormal gene is located on the X chromosome (Figure 3).

In a presence of the mutant X gene, all of the daughters will inherit the mutant gene from their father, although sons will not be carriers and disease will not develop, because father has one X chromosome to transmit to his daughters. [ref. Dry Nanny Amanda, MD; 2013] If the mother is the carrier of the X gene of interest, there will be 50% risk equally for daughters and for sons of inheriting the abnormal gene. Just one mutant allele is needed for X-Inked dominant disorders to arise. [ref. Koru BRB.

Principles of Genetics] One of sex-linked dominant inherited disorders are classic Ret syndrome, which is caused by mutation in EMCEE gene. This gene is involved in making a protein, which is essential in maintaining connection between nerve cells for normal brain function. Mutation of this proteins results in production of less proteins, which is disturbing function of brain while reducing neurons ability to communicate with each other. In other words, individual carrying this disease struggle to communicate, coordinate, hands motion have no purpose, growing is slower than normal (in childhood). Ref. Genetics Home Reference. 2013] Figure 4: Sex-linked recessive disorder For Sex-linked recessive conditions to appear individual has to inherit two copies of abnormal gene. Individual carrying one mutant allele is a carrier of a disease and can pass the gene through. As males have Just one X chromosome, X-Inked disorders more occur in males. Single gene of interest is needed to cause the condition. [ref. Koru BRB. Principles of Genetics] For females it is rarer to get an X-Inked recessive disorder as women need to inherit the gene of interest from each parent.

Female carriers may carry a normal X chromosome, this would be called “skewed X- inactivation. ” [ref. Hide Chill, Ph. D. 2008] Similar to those male symptoms may occur to carrier female individuals. Hemophilia A is an example of disease that is inherited through families by sex-linked recessive pattern. Mutations in the IF gene causes hemophilia A. This gene is involved in making a coagulation factor VIII protein, which works in b looting processes. It is important to protect the body from losing blood by confining damaged vessels.

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