muscular system flashcards

Question Answer
The ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force Contractility
The capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus Excitability
The ability to be stretched Extensibility
Ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched Elasticity
Connective tissue sheath that surrounds each skeletal muscle Epimysium
Connective tissue located outside the epimysium. Fascia
Numerous visible bundles that make up muscle Muscle fasciculi
Loose connective tissue that surrounds muscle fasciculi. Perimysium
Muscle cells that make up muscle fasciculi Fibers
Connective tissue sheath that surrounds each muscle fiber Endomysium
A threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other Myofibril
Thin myofilaments Actin myofilaments
Thick myofilaments Myosin myofilaments
Basic structural and functional unit of the muscle Sarcomere
Each sarcomere extends from one _ ____ to another _ ____. They're attachment sites for actin.

Z line
ch side of the Z line is a light area called an _ ____, it consists of actin. I band
The _ ____ extends the length of the myosin. It is the darker central region in each sarcomere. A band
In the center of each sarcomere is another light area called the _ ____, which consists of only myosin.

H zone
The myosin myofilaments are anchored in the center of the sarcomere at a dark staining band called the _ ____. M line
the charge difference across the membrane resting membrane potential
brief reversal back of the charge action potential
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
formed by each branch that connects to the muscle neuromuscular junction or synapse
a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates motor unit
enlarged nerve terminal presynaptic terminal
the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
each presynaptic terminal contains _______ ________ that secrete a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine. Synaptic vesicles
The acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cell is broken down by an enzyme, ___________________. Acetylcholinesterase
The sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction sliding filament mechanism
a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers. muscle twitch
a muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called _________ threshold
When the stimulus reaches the threshold, the muscle fiber will contract maximally. This phenomenon is called the ___________ ________. all-or-none response
the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction. lag phase
time of contraction contraction phase
the time during which the muscle relaxes relaxation phase
where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
increase in number of motor units being activated recruitment
needed for energy for muscle contraction adenosine triphosphate
ATP is produced in the ____________ mitochondria
when at rest muscle cells can't stockpile ATP but they can store another high-energy molecule, called ________ _________ creatine phosphate
without oxygen anaerobic respiration
with oxygen (more efficient) aerobic respiration
amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells oxygen debt
results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells muscle fatigue
equal distance isometric
equal tension isotonic
refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time muscle tone
contract quickly and fatigue quickly fast-twitch fibers
contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue slow-twitch fibers
the most stationary end of the muscle origin
the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion belly
muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements synergists
muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonists
one muscle that plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement prime mover
raises the eyebrows occipitofrontalis
closes the eyelids orbicularis oculi
puckers the lips orbicularis oris
flattens the cheeks buccinator
smiling muscle zygomaticius
sneering levator labii superioris
frowning depressor anguli oris
chewing mastification
change the shape of the tongue intrinsic tongue muscles
moves the tongue extrinsic tongue muscles
lateral neck mucle and prime mover sternocleidomastoid
group of muscles on each side of the back erector spinae
elevate the ribs during inspiration external intercostals
contract during forced expiration internal intercostals
accomplishes quiet breathing diaphragm
tendinous area of the abdominal wall linea alba
on each side of the linea alba rectus abdominus
rotates scapula trapezius
pulls scapula anteriorly serratus anterior
adducts and flees the arm pectoralis major
extends the forearm triceps brachii

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