Notes on Vietnam and Europe up to 1954 Essay

After Dien Bien Phu the colonial power (FR0) pulls out of Indochina

* USA fears that the whole of Asia would fall to conference

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1954 Geneva Conference

* ceasefire

* French withdrawal

* Division of Vietnam at the 17th Parallel until elections

o USA hinder these elections

* The Vietminh establish a communist regime in the North

* The South establishes an authoritarian government with USA backing

The USA was becoming increasingly drawn into Asia to prevent communist gains

German Re-Armament

NATO strengthened

W. German re-armed

FDR recognised as a sovereign state

USA encourages W. German rearmament

* USA overseas the political and economic reconstruction of W. German

Germany goes from enemy to ally

European Defence Community

A separate European army

France allows for West German re-armament

Treaty ensured that West German units would be strictly limited

Western European Union

Largely an extension of the 1947 Anglo French alliance

Extended to Belgium, Holland & Luxemburg

These five countries could work for their defence without the help of America

1948 Brussels Treaty

1954 it is decided to be called WEU

* W. Germany & Italy join

NATO

May 1955: FDR join

Safeguards put in place to appease France:

* GB – 4 divisions on the continent

* Germany not allowed to create nuclear or biological weapons

* Supreme allied commander

Geneva Conference 1955

The first summit meeting since Potsdam with the war time allies present

* “The Spirit of Geneva” – optimism

o discussions around Germany

* NK talked about a united neutral Germany

* Dismantle NATO and Warsaw Pact and create a new collective security counsel

o Highlights a marked a improvement in relations

Camp David 1959

The first USA USSR summit

The end of Eisenhower’s presidency

* Hopes to relax tension and improve relations

Agreements that there will be a summit meeting and that issues will be sorted out peacefully

However on big issues they diagreeded

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