Questions and Key Concepts (Terms/People)
1.What changes did the radical government make in French society and politics?
2.What was the Reign of Terror, and how did it end?
Reign of Terror
A Radical Government
-“Radical representatives” in the “National Convention” had a huge impact on the French Revolution (September 20, 1792)
-From then on, the constitutional monarchy of France became a republic.
Factions in the New Government
-Members of the political faction, “The Mountain” were known as Montagnards and were members of “Jacobin Club/Jacobins”
-The faction was the most radical, forming revolutionary policies with the help and encouragement of mid-low social classes.
-The second political faction, “the Girondins” were unpopular folks (moderates) who vouched for “constitutional monarchy” and opposed extreme opinions. Originating from colonies, they hated Paris mob’s effects on the Revolution.
-The third political faction, “The Plain”, consisting “swing voters” which back up “The Girondins” first, but then changed to support “The Mountain”. Everyone would be biased individuals (affected by past clashing/events) There wasn’t a particular order, vision or programs promised to have happened.
-The government’s new system was greatly impacted by “Jean-Paul Marat, Georges-Jacques Danton and Maximilien Robespierre.”
-Supporter of brutality, head of the working class in Paris, the sans culottes and a well known leader of the radical, “National Convention”, Jean Paul Marat was one powerful individual that impacted the “new government”
-An inhumane troublemaker, favored by common folks within the beginning of “The French Revolution”, an agreeing fellow, soon went against “the revolution’s surplus”. That significant man would be Georges-Jacques Danton.
-This person was recognized for enthusiasm, persistence and perseverance in “The French Revolution” as well as Took charge of “the National Convention”. He was Maximilien Robespierre, a radical man.
The Execution of the King
-So, Louis XVI was put on trial after “National Convention” intervened and found Louis guilty. Ending up with death sentence on January 21, 1793.
-On that day, soldiers surrounded the area to prevent trouble (monarchy supporters) and Louis was beheaded with the guillotine. The guillotine was a contraption that sliced a person’s head off with a massive, razor-sharp blade. Afterwards, his head was held up in the air. Rumor spread fast and soon, Europeans, were horrified, especially “The London Times”, who criticized the crude punishment of Louis.
-In the minority, “Girodins” wanted to circumvent the case against Louis XVI, but was overpowered by “Montagnards”. “Montagnards” wanted to throw absolutism or monarchy out of the picture and stop the enemies who went against “The French Revolution”.
-National Convention created “The Committee of Public Safety”, whose role was to control the army’s protection when distant parties attack France’s borders.
-“The Committee of Public Safety” did something that’s never been done before. Write out papers which said 18 to 45 year old men who don’t have spouses shall sign up to be in the army.
-Made “Revolutionary Tribunal”, a court to figure out and eliminate those on the inside that put “The French Revolution” at risk.
-“The French Revolution” didn’t just alter the French civilization, but was close to completely changing.
-Authority in “new government” didn’t want any reminders or connection to anything in the past, including, beliefs.
-Roman Catholic Clergies were fired and the new “Cult of the Supreme Being” was formed. The main subject of worship being “The Revolution” Opposition to the church meant Bibles and statues were in danger. Bible titles were renamed, “Declaration of the Rights of Man”
-Past metric system changed to which we still have today. Now, months’ names changed and have 30 days (10 days, every week) in the almanac, or calendar.
The Reign of Terror
-The path of “The French Revolution” was worrying folks at around 1793 and the government as well.
-In order to prevent “counterrevolution”, “The Mountain”, a political group, trialed, killed and charged a mass. Which then created the “Reign of Terror”, a time of fear.
-A counterrevolution is a second revolution as a result of the first, which targets the government (similar to a action and reaction, this would be a reaction),
An Outbreak of Civil War
-The Revolution’s main opposition would be folks living in rural areas and peasants. After success in ending feudalism, they became “Conservative” and “Catholic” again. Going against Revolutions’ anticlerical actions.
-Hatred blew up when “National Convention” wrote a paper. Rebels were saying to the government that, “You’ve murdered my own ruler, fired my priests, sold my treasures, now you want us dead? You shall not have us!”
-“Vendee”, the western area of France, the hatred and opposition grew so deep and powerful that “Catholic and Royal Army” was made.
-“Catholic and Royal Army” symbolized “Roman Catholic Church” and “The Monarchy” The group would fight authority, however wasn’t successful as government won eventually.
Accusation and Trials
-“Revolutionary Tribunal” was utilized by “The Mountain”, to calm arguments. -Robespierre had the idea that fear must be inflicted as a way of self-protection and defense from opposition.
-“Revolutionary Tribunal” dealt with hazards or dangers to “The Revolution”, which were “Girondists”, cause they vouched for “constitutional monarchy”
-Later on, whoever was suspected of trying to revolt against the government, had aspects of the past (Old Order relation) or said any harsh words of criticism about this movement will be tried and even killed!
Death by Guillotine
-Most frequent punishment would be through the guillotine chopping your head off. To get the destination where you’ll be killed off, you got on transportation that rode through Paris’ streets.
-Every minute, Swift and efficient, capable of killing “one or more prisoners”
The Terror’s Victims
-None were excluded or rescued in particular in “The Reign of Terror.” The common folk’s death or execution out numbered the nobles, making them the main victims, which was exactly the opposite of what the people had intended. “Nobles, Clergies, Women and etc. weren’t let off the chain.
-Those who went to the guillotine would be “peasants, workers, Olympe de Gouges, Marie Antoinette, nuns, Robespierre (Arrested and killed by guillotine on July 27,1794), Danton and followers of the two, etc.”
-17,000 dead, 300,000 apprehended were caused in “The Reign of Terror” within the span of 10 months, caused large disturbance due to violence and increased enemies outside.
-Intentions of “Reign of Terror” turned sour (enfeebled “The French Revolution”)
After the Terror
-Having to make another government, “National Convention” created another body of law (1795). I.e., The new body of law allowed banned previous privileges and gave voting rights to those with land or possessions.
-After the time of “The Terror”, “Directory”, an authoritative committee containing five folks were formed. These people made some changes to trade and economy, however, wasn’t successful long-term.
-They in fact even dug France deeper into a hole because the 5 became feeble and perverted. Unable to lead the people, they lost control and bits of “Old Order” returned such as overtaxing, debt and worried citizens.
The changes that the radical government made in society and politics would be that three political factions were formed. “The Jacobins”, “The Girondians” and “The Plain” Another political change would be that the radical government condemned Louis XVI, which therefore got him executed, not only that, the National Convention banned Roman Catholicism and replaced that with “Cult of the Supreme Being”. Not only that, the “Revolutionary Tribunal” to eliminate disagreements and that would be death by guillotine. The Reign of Terror was a period started by the committee of public safety where many folks were sent and killed by the guillotine. Claiming 17,000 lives and arresting 300,000 folks! The reign of terror ended when Robespierre, a significant leader of the Public Safety Committee and his supporters were executed by the guillotine.