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The World
Health Organization (WHO) has defined a work-related disorder as one that
results from a number of factors, and where the work environment and the
performance of the work contribute significantly, but in varying magnitude, to
the causation of the disease. The term musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) itself denotes
health problems of the locomotor apparatus, i.e. muscles, tendons, the
skeleton, cartilage, the vascular system, ligaments and nerves (Ramos et al.,
2015) whereas WMSDs is defined as musculoskeletal disorders that are induced or
aggravated by work and the circumstances of its performance (European Risk
Observatory Report, 2010). According to Punnet and Wegman (2004), WMSDs can be
defined as when a muscle, tendon, nerve or joint is stressed and traumatized on
a repeated basis due to activities at workplace, for days, months or years,
those body tissues eventually become damaged.  In addition, Occhipinti and Colombini (2016) said that WMSDs are
primarily caused by working activities involving manual handling, heavy
physical jobs, awkward postures, repetitive movements or exertions of the upper
limbs and vibrations. Ray and Teizer (2012) further described that amongst the
above mentioned risk factors, WMSDs occur primarily with workers involved in carrying
heavy loads, kneeling, contact stress, vibration, extreme temperatures,
twisting hands or wrists, stretching to work overhead or other awkward
positions while performing job activities. This includes manual material
handling task where manual material handling is defined as transporting or
supporting a load including manual lifting, bending lowering, pushing, pulling,
carrying, or moving a load and this type of tasks will cause awkward postures
due to the heavy exertion of workload (Kabilmiharbi and Selamat, 2016). Tamrin
et al., (2007) added that the prevalence of WMSDs is related to the type of
occupations such as driving, manual handling and occupations that involve a lot
of improper body movements. Additionally, Baba et al., (2015) stressed that
manual material handling is the most common cause of musculoskeletal disorders
(MSDs) since it involves activity such as manual lifting, lowering, bending,
pushing and pulling loads. In Malaysian industries, manual task using human labor
such as lifting, loading and unloading are still widely used in production
processes (Shamsudin et al., 2017). Moreover, Parida and Ray (2015) commented that
manual material handling (MMH) is one of the main factor causing WMSDs among
workers in the industrial developing country (IDC) such as Malaysia.



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