One may wonder, what is flight? Many Just stare up into the blue skies above and assume. While others devote their lives to discovering and finding a passion in aviation. Flight can be simply characterized as the [powered] gliding of an object through the air, but the wonders of soaring through the air does not simply stop there, instead, flight is a whole myriad of forces acting on each other, as so found out by scientists decades ago.
In the early 1 5th century, Leonardo Dad Vinci fantasized the human species as being able to fly with a contraption, and so with that, he set off on a quest to find the answer by designing one radical plan after another, all leading to ultimate failure, but little did he know that his ingenious plans laid out the basic foundations for modern scientists alike, one of them being George Clayey, who took the study of flight even further, discovering the art of gliding flight by creating full-scale models of working gliders.
When the news of Galleys work spread far and wide, Otto Alienated caught sight of this opportunity and documented Galleys flight, thus becoming the iris human to ever recorded [gliding] flight, also earning him the nickname “Glider King. ” Their work is credited when Orville and Wilbur Wright developed and flew the Wright Flyer I at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina in 1903. The Wright brothers originally started out printing newspapers for the local community, but when they came across with a column on Clayey and Aliment’s amazing work, they started saving funds for their ever-growing and everlasting love for aviation. Wrought 1901, 1902, they made numerous flight attempts with biplane gliders, with minor adjustments (I. E. Ding a tail, curving wings to make dihedral angle, etc. ) But it wasn’t until they funded for a wind tunnel did they figure out that if the wings itself thickened in the middle to form a “teardrop” form that sustained flight would be capable. So, with that note, in 1903 the brothers set out to build Wright Flyer I , which was an improved version with a tail, and powered by a bicycle-shop built, motor-driven propeller engine.
When they got out to the field, Wilbur won a coin toss to see who flew first, but upon takeoff, he stalled and damaged the wing. After a day of repairs, Orville took o the air, flying 37 meters in 12 seconds (3. 1 m/s for those physics nerds out there. ) Without the thrust of the crude propeller-driven engine, the “Wright Brothers” would not have been known throughout the world. The flapping of the wings, to sustain flight for long periods of time. This force can be explained by Newton’s second and third laws of motion .
In the early stages, powered flight was only able to be achieved by using propeller technology, first developed by the Wright Brothers. Later on in the asses, English and German physicists Frank Whittle and Hans Von Ionian developed the “turbojet” technology, which was an extremely low-bypass engine that was not fuel efficient, and had a relatively short lifespan. The first Jet powered aircraft to take flight was the German Luftwaffe Hinkle He-178, designed by Ernst Hinkle. The first flight, however, was conducted on August 27, 1939 by Erich Wariest.
After multiple technological advances in this field, the turbojet engine developed into the medium-high bypass turbofan engine with the help of the engineers at Rolls-Royce in Derby, England. This new and improved engine technology used most of the consumed Jet-A fuel to service the combustion hammer in turn, oscillating the Bangladesh and creating more thrust, and as a whole being a much more favorable, more fuel-efficient engine. At the turn of the century, even more efficient engines were being produced by major engine powerhouses, such as Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, CFML International, and Rolls-Royce.
These next-generation engines have advances such as swept-Bangladesh to maximize air intake, shoot engine cowlings to reduce noise to cope with noise-abatement laws, using composite materials to be ecologically-friendly, lighten the payload, further improving the lifespan of the engine, and reducing drag by smoothly flowing air through the engine to serve as a coolant for the immense heat that the combustion process creates. Drag: A pilot’s worst nightmare. Created when any solid body moves through a fluid or air, it pushes the aircraft backwards against the direction of travel.
Drag gets higher when the aircraft has a larger surface area, or the air pressure is higher. One cannot completely overcome it, but can add components such as winglets, which are devices almost like miniature wings that are perpendicular to the wings placed on he end of a wing, to reduce the parasitic drag, which is drag caused by the plane going through the air which can change based on surface area of the aircraft and air density, on the aircraft by diverting and eventually dispersing the wingtip vortices. This technology was first brainstormed by Frederick W.
Lancaster in 1895, and was later built upon by the patents of William E. Somerville and Vincent Burnable in 1910 and 1930. Somerville was first to retrofit biplanes with crude, but functioning winglets. Burnable received a patent for his paper “Airfoil Control Means. ” on August 16, 1930. Up until modern day, the winglet has been evolved many times, pushing the maximum efficiency every time, such as the early wingtip fence on the Airbus A-320 family to the blended winglets n a Boeing 737-800, to the raked winglet on a Boeing 787-8. /2(IV)(A)(C)(P) A-?cross sectional area of vehicle C=drag coefficient P=air density. Engineers use this formula to calculate the force of drag on an aircraft, thus finding new ways to reduce the unwanted force. The lift to drag (L-D) ratio which is calculated by dividing the force of lift by the force of drag, explains the definite ratio f one’s force of lift will always be proportional to the drag created. Drag is also necessary for a smooth landing of an aircraft on the runway. Proportional to one another. Lift is perpendicular to, and counteracts the force of drag so the aircraft can achieve flight.
This is the force that counters air resistance downward, sending the aircraft up. Flaps on the trailing edge and slats on the leading edge of the wing help increase the surface area of the wing, thus vectoring the air downwards while the aircraft accelerates for takeoff. Flaps were conceived by aeronautical engineers worldwide, and they serve as a general purpose, as to help rate lift during takeoff, slowing and stabilizing the aircraft during the approach and touchdown, (which United still cannot manage to do… ) Also to serve as a directional purpose when banking left/right.
The flap track fairings, or more commonly described as “pods” resting under the wings, were originally designed to guide the flaps down from initial rest position to needed attack angle, but then also was discovered to reduce vibrations in the wings, s in the early asses, the first fairings were installed on a Soviet Tupelos Tu-1 54, which was extremely successful in reducing infilling vibrations and reducing drag, thus avian fuel, and so the rest of the aviation industry started applying this device to their aircraft, such as the Boeing 737-100, and the Contain CHIC, CHIC.