Principles and Practice of Management Sample Essay

Introduction:
The schools of direction idea are theoretical models for the survey of direction. Each of the schools of direction idea are based on slightly different premises about human existences and the organisations for which they work. Since the formal survey of direction began tardily in the nineteenth century. the survey of direction has progressed through several phases as bookmans and practicians working in different epochs focused on what they believed to be of import facets of good direction pattern. Over clip. direction minds have sought ways to form and sort the voluminous information about direction that has been collected and disseminated. These efforts at categorization have resulted in the designation of direction schools. The undermentioned Table provides a brief sum-up of five major schools of direction idea. their approximative day of the months of beginning. and their comparative countries of accent.

The assorted schools of direction can be put into five wide classs. They are: A ) The classical attack
B ) The behavioural attack
C ) The quantitative attack
D ) The systems attack
Tocopherol ) The eventuality attack



A ) THE CLASSICAL APPROACH:
One of the first schools of direction idea. the classical direction theory. developed during the Industrial Revolution when new jobs related to the mill system began to look. Directors were unsure of how to develop employees ( many of them non-English speech production immigrants ) or cover with increased labour dissatisfaction. so they began to prove solutions. As a consequence. the classical direction theory developed from attempts to happen the “one best way” to execute and pull off undertakings. This school of idea is made up of three subdivisions. They are: 1 ) Scientific direction

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2 ) Administrative rules
3 ) Bureaucratic organisation

1 ) SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT:
* Contribution of F. W. Taylor: The scientific direction school is chiefly attributed to the thoughts and plants of Fredrick. W. Taylor. who is known as the “the male parent of scientific management” . He is good known for his celebrated work. “The Principles of Scientific Management” . published in 1911. which became the foundation of scientific direction motion. Taylor was interested in replacing the traditional direction by scientific direction by developing the most scientific and rational rules for managing people. machines. stuffs. and money and to procure maximal benefits for the employers every bit good as employees. He offered 4 rules as footing for scientific direction. They are: a ) Every occupation should be broken into its elements and a scientific method to execute each component should be established. B ) The scientific choice of workers. so that each worker would be given duty for the undertaking for which he or she was best suited. degree Celsius ) The scientific instruction and development of the worker.

vitamin D ) Intimate. friendly cooperation between direction and labour. * Contributions of the Gilbreths: Frank. B and Lillian. M. Gilbreth made their part to the scientific direction motion as a husband-and-wife squad. Lillian and Frank collaborated on weariness and gesture surveies and focused on ways of advancing the single worker’s public assistance. To them. the ultimate purpose of scientific direction was to assist workers make their full potency as human existences. In their construct. gesture and weariness were intertwined-every gesture that was eliminated decreased weariness. Using gesture image cameras. they tried to happen out the most economical gestures for each undertaking in order to upgrade public presentation and cut down weariness. The Gilbreths argued that gesture survey would raise worker morale because of its obvious physical benefits and because it demonstrated management’s concern for the worker.

* Contributions of Henry Gantt: an associate of Taylor’s developed the Gantt chart. a saloon graph that measures planned and completed work along each phase of production. Based on clip alternatively of measure. volume. or weight. this ocular show chart has been a widely used planning and control tool since its development in 1910. He was besides responsible for presenting “Task and Bonus Plan” . It was aimed at supplying excess rewards for excess work in add-on to a guaranteed lower limit pay. Bonuss were besides awarded to supervisors who were successful in acquiring their workers to run into the end product end. * Contributions of Harrington Emerson: He is known as the high priest of efficiency. He came to fame when he was called as an expert by the Interstate Commerce Commission in1911 in a hearing for addition in the railway cargo rate. His book. “Twelve Principles of Efficiency” published in 1912. contained rules and techniques for optimal productiveness achieved in the most efficient mode.

2 ) Administrative Principles:
* Contributions of Henry Fayol: Henri Fayol. a Gallic excavation applied scientist. developed 14 rules of direction based on his direction experiences. These rules provide contemporary directors with general guidelines on how a supervisor should form her section and pull off her staff. Although ulterior research has created contention over many of the undermentioned rules. they are still widely used in direction theories. 1. Division of work: Division of work and specialisation produces more and better work with the same attempt. 2. Authority and duty: Authority is the right to give orders and the power to demand obeisance. A director has official authorization because of her place. every bit good as personal authorization based on single personality. intelligence. and experience. Authority creates duty. 3. Discipline: Obedience and regard within an organisation are perfectly indispensable. Good subject requires directors to use countenances whenever misdemeanors become evident.

4. Integrity of bid: An employee should have orders from merely one higher-up. 5. Integrity of way: Organizational activities must hold one cardinal authorization and one program of action. 6. Subordination of single involvement to general involvement: The involvements of one employee or group of employees are low-level to the involvements and ends of the organisation. 7. Wage of forces: Wages — the monetary value of services rendered by employees — should be just and provide satisfaction both to the employee and employer. 8. Centralization: The aim of centralisation is the best use of forces. The grade of centralisation varies harmonizing to the kineticss of each organisation. 9. Scalar concatenation: A concatenation of authorization exists from the highest organisational authorization to the lowest ranks. 10. Order: Organizational order for stuffs and forces is indispensable.

The right stuffs and the right employees are necessary for each organisational map and activity. 11. Equity: In organisations. equity is a combination of helpfulness and justness. Both equity and equality of intervention should be considered when covering with employees. 12. Stability of term of office of forces: To achieve the maximal productiveness of forces. a stable work force is needed. 13. Enterprise: Thinking out a program and guaranting its success is an highly strong incentive. Zeal. energy. and inaugural are desired at all degrees of the organisational ladder. 14. Esprit de corps: Teamwork is basically of import to an organisation. Work squads and extended face-to-face verbal communicating encourages teamwork.

3 ) BUREAUCRATIC Administration:
* Contributions of Max Weber: Weber looked for regulations to extinguish managerial incompatibilities that contribute to ineffectiveness. He farther believed that every divergence from the formal construction interferes with efficient direction. He believed in rigorous attachment to regulations which would do bureaucratism a really efficient signifier of organisation founded on rules of logic. order and legitimate authorization. The basic features of a bureaucratic organisation are: 1. A division of labor by functional specialisation: A maximal possible division of labour makes it possible to use all links of the organisation experts who are to the full responsible for the effectual fulfilment of their responsibilities. 2. A good defined hierarchy of authorization: Each lower functionary is under the control and supervising of a higher 1. Every subsidiary is accountable to his higher-up for his ain determinations and actions and the determinations and actions of his subsidiaries in bend. 3. A system of regulations covering the responsibilities and rights of employees: These regulations should be clear cut and the duty of every member in the organisation must be clearly defined and assigned and purely adhered to.

B ) THE BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH:
As direction research continued in the twentieth century. inquiries began to come up sing the interactions and motives of the person within organisations. Management rules developed during the classical period were merely non utile in covering with many direction state of affairss and could non explicate the behaviour of single employees. In short. classical theory ignored employee motive and behaviour. As a consequence. the behavioural school was a natural branch of this radical direction experiment. The behavioural direction theory is frequently called the human dealingss motion because it addresses the human dimension of work. Behavioral theoreticians believed that a better apprehension of human behaviour at work. such as motive. struggle. outlooks. and group kineticss. improved productiveness. The theoreticians who contributed to this school viewed employees as persons. resources. and assets to be developed and worked with — non as machines. as in the yesteryear. Several persons and experiments contributed to this theory.

* The Hawthorne Experiments: The human dealingss motion grew out of a celebrated series of surveies conducted at the western electric company from 1924 to 1933. These finally became known as the “Hawthorne Experiments” because many of them were performed at western electric’s Hawthorne works near Chicago. The Hawthorne surveies began as an effort to look into the relationship between the degree of illuming in the workplace and worker productiveness. In some of the early surveies. the western electric research workers divided the employees into trial groups. who were subjected to consider alterations in illuming. and control groups. whose illuming remained changeless throughout the experiments. The consequences of the experiments were equivocal. When the trial groups illuming was improved. productiveness tended to increase. although unpredictably. But when lighting conditions were made worse. there was besides a inclination for productiveness to increase in the trial group. To intensify the enigma. the control groups end product besides rose the class of the surveies. even though it experienced no alterations in light. Obviously. something besides lighting was act uponing the workers public presentation. In a new set of experiments. little group of workers was placed in a separate room and a figure of variables were altered.

Wagess were increased. remainder periods of changing length were introduced. the work twenty-four hours and work hebdomad were shortened. Researchers. who now acted as supervisors. besides allowed the groups to take their ain remainder periods and to hold a say in other suggested alterations. Again. the consequences were equivocal. Performance tended to increase over clip but it besides rose and fell unpredictably. Separate manner through this set of experiments. Elton Mayo and some associates from Harvard including Fritz. J. Roethlisberger and William. J. Dickson became involved. In these and subsequent experiments. Mayo and his associates decided that a complex concatenation of attitudes had touched off the productiveness additions. Because they had been singled out for particular attending both the trial and the control groups had developed a group drive that motivated them to better their work public presentation. Sympathetic supervising had further reinforced their motive. The research workers concluded that the employers would work harder if they believed that direction was concerned about their public assistance and supervisors paid particular attending to them. This phenomenon was later labeled the Hawthorne consequence. * Contributions of Abraham Maslow: Abraham Maslow. a practicing psychologist. developed one of the most widely recognized demand theories. a theory of motive based upon a consideration of human demands. His theory of human demands had three premises: * Human demands are ne’er wholly satisfied.

* Human behaviour is purposeful and is motivated by the demand for satisfaction. * Needs can be classified harmonizing to a hierarchal construction of importance. from the lowest to highest. Maslow broke down the needs hierarchy into five specific countries: * Physiological demands: Maslow grouped all physical demands necessary for keeping basic human wellbeing. such as nutrient and drink. into this class. After the demand is satisfied. nevertheless. it is no thirster is a incentive. * Safety demands: These demands include the demand for basic security. stableness. protection. and freedom from fright. A normal province exists for an person to hold all these demands by and large satisfied. Otherwise. they become primary incentives. * Belonging and love demands: After the physical and safety demands are satisfied and are no longer incentives. the demand for belonging and love emerges as a primary incentive. The single strives to set up meaningful relationships with important others. * Esteem demands: An person must develop assurance and wants to accomplish position. repute. celebrity. and glorification.

* Self-actualization demands: Assuming that all the old demands in the hierarchy are satisfied. an single feels a demand to happen himself. Maslow’s hierarchy of demands theory helped directors visualise employee motive. * Contributions of Douglas McGregor: Douglas McGregor was to a great extent influenced by both the Hawthorne surveies and Maslow. He believed that two basic sorts of directors exist. One type. the Theory X director. has a negative position of employees and assumes that they are lazy. untrusty. and incapable of presuming duty.

On the other manus. the Theory Y director assumes that employees are non merely trusty and capable of presuming duty. but besides have high degrees of motive. An of import facet of McGregor’s thought was his belief that directors who hold either set of premises can make self-fulfilling prognostications — that through their behaviour. these directors create state of affairss where subsidiaries act in ways that confirm the manager’s original outlooks. As a group. these theoreticians discovered that people worked for interior satisfaction and non mercenary wagess. switching the focal point to the function of persons in an organization’s public presentation.

C ) THE QUANTITATIVE APPROACH:
* Management scientific discipline and MIS:
It uses mathematical and statistical attacks to work out direction jobs. It originated during World War II. as strategians tried to use scientific cognition and methods to the complex jobs of war. Industry began to use direction scientific discipline after the war. George Dantzig developed additive scheduling. an algebraic method to find the optimum allotment of scarce resources. Other tools used in industry include stock list control theory. end scheduling. line uping theoretical accounts and simulation. The coming of the computing machine made many direction scientific discipline tools and constructs more practical and applicable for the industry. Increasingly. direction scientific discipline and direction information systems ( MIS ) are interconnected. MIS focuses on supplying needed information to directors in a utile format and at the proper clip. Decision support systems ( DSS ) attempts to incorporate determination theoretical accounts. informations and the determination shaper into a system that supports better direction determinations. * Production and operations direction:

This school focuses on the operation and control of the production procedure that transforms resources into finished goods and services. It has its roots in scientific direction but it developed into an identifiable country of direction survey after World War II. It uses many tools of direction scientific discipline. Operations direction emphasises the productiveness and quality of both fabrication and service administrations. W. Edwards Deming exerted enormous influence in determining modern thoughts about bettering productiveness and quality. Foremost countries of survey within operations direction include capacity-planning. installations location. installations layout. stuffs requirement be aftering. scheduling. buying and stock list control. quality control. computing machine integrated fabrication. just-in-time stock list systems and flexible fabrication systems.

D ) SYSTEMS APPROACH:
A perennial drawback of the classical. behavioural and quantitative schools is that they lay more accent on one facet of the organisation at the disbursal of another. However. it is hard to cognize which aspect is most functional. constructive and appropriate in a given state of affairs. What is needed is a remarkable expansive. detailed. conceptual model that can assist a director name a job and make up one’s mind which tool or combination of tools 30 Management Process and Organizational Behavior Will carry through the undertaking best. The systems attack helps in obtaining an integrated attack to direction jobs. Some of import subscribers of the systems attack are Chester Barnard. George Homans. Philip Selznick and Herbert Simon. The following are the cardinal constructs of this attack: * A system is a set of mutualist parts. which together form a unitary whole that performs some map.

An organisation is besides a system composed of four interdependent parts. viz. . undertaking. construction. people and engineering. * A system can be either open or closed. A system is considered unfastened if it interacts with its environment. All biological. human and societal systems are unfastened systems because they invariably intermingle with their environments. A system is considered closed if it does non interact with the environment. Physical and mechanical systems are closed systems because they are insulated from their external environment. Traditional organisation theoreticians regarded organisations as closed systems while. harmonizing to the modern position. organisations are unfastened systems. invariably interacting with their environments. * Each system. including an organisation. has its ain boundaries. which separate it from other systems in the environment. The boundaries for unfastened systems are nevertheless. ‘permeable’ or penetrable. unlike those of the closed systems. They are rather flexible and adjustable. depending upon their activities. The confines for closed systems are stiff.

The map of direction is to move as a boundary-linking pin among the assorted subsystems within the organisational system. on the one manus and between the organisation and the external environmental system. on the other. In the context of a concern organisation. it has many boundary contacts or ‘interfaces’ with many external systems like providers. creditors. clients. authorities bureaus etc. * Every system has flows of information. stuff and energy. These enter the system from the environment as inputs and go out the system as end products. The inputs of a concern organisation are natural stuffs. equipment. human attempt. engineering and information. The organisation converts these inputs into end products of goods. services and satisfactions.

This procedure of alteration is known as ‘throughput’ . * It should be remembered that the end product of a system is ever more than the combined end product of its parts. This is called ‘synergy’ . In organisational footings. synergism refers to the addition in productiveness when separate sections within an organisation cooperate. coexist and interact as compared to the productiveness when they acted in isolation. In other words. as separate sections within an organisation cooperate and interact. they become more productive than if they had acted in isolation. For illustration. it is evidently more efficient for each section in a little house to pull off one finance section than for each section to hold a separate finance section of its ain.

Tocopherol ) THE CONTIGENCY APPROACH:
Harmonizing to this attack. direction values and constructs of assorted schools have no cosmopolitan applications. In other words. there is no optimum or individual best manner of making things under all conditions. Methods and techniques. which are extremely effectual in one state of affairs. may non work in other state of affairss. Consequences differ because state of affairss differ. Consequently. the eventuality attack suggests that the undertaking of directors is to seek to place which technique will outdo contribute to the attainment of direction ends in a peculiar state of affairs. Therefore. directors have to use a kind of situational sensitiveness and practical selectivity.

The eventuality school originated in the sixtiess. It has been applied chiefly to direction issues such as organisational design. occupation design. motive. and leading manner. For illustration. optimum organisational construction has been theorized to depend upon organisational size. engineering. and environmental uncertainness ; optimum leading manner. interim. has been theorized to depend upon a assortment of factors. including undertaking construction. place power. features of the work group. features of single subsidiaries. quality demands. and job construction. to call a few. A few of the major subscribers to this school of direction thought include Joan Woodward. Paul Lawrence. Jay Lorsch. and Fred Fiedler. among many others.

Decision:
All of the predating theories have come down to us in the late twentieth?century universe of organisations and direction. Here they are practiced against a background of rapid alteration and profound rethinking about how direction and organisations will germinate in the following century. At the bosom of this rethinking. which is truly happening in legion ways at the same clip. are new ways of believing about relationships and clip.

As boundaries between civilizations and states are blurred and new communications engineering makes it possible to believe of the universe as a “global small town. ” the range of international and intercultural relationships is quickly spread outing. The gait of organisational activity picks up dramatically. These tendencies indicate a heightened degree of strength in organisations and direction today.

In times when theories are altering. it is frequently true that the last thing that happens is that person assigns a name to the new theory. We use to convey the temper of current thought and argument about direction and organisations. It is rather likely that twenty old ages from now. good into your organisational lives. you will look back and name this period of motion by some other name.

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