Radiation is defined as a kinetic energy that propagates from one location to another

Radiation is defined as a kinetic energy that propagates from one location to another (Sherer et al., 2014). Radiation can be divided into two which are ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation can be produced when there is high energy to remove the electron from the atom while non-ionizing radiation is opposite to the ionizing radiation (Sherer et al., 2014). The example of ionizing radiation is x-ray and gamma rays (Sherer et al., 2014).
Gamma rays have high energy, so it can pass through a lot of matter even the human tissue (ARPANSA, no date). Thus, ionizing radiation has becoming a concern because it is responsible for the harmful effects to the human and the fact it can also treat human. Patients and technologist are always exposed to the radiation by several means. They are primary radiation, leakage radiation and scattered radiation (Seeram and Travis, 1997).
The example of primary radiation is the direct radiation from the x-ray tube to the patient which will produce an image (Seeram and Travis, 1997). Besides, leakage radiation is the radiation that can pass through the covering of the x ray tube. Plus, scattered radiation is the radiation that coming from Compton interactions (Seeram and Travis, 1997). The patient is commonly exposed to the primary radiation while the technologist is exposed to the leakage and scattered radiation. Therefore, the technologist needs to practice the proper radiation protection principles and educate the patient as well as the other health care professionals and staffs about this concept. This is to make sure that the patient receives the therapeutic effects of radiation therapy with less side effects to the patient (Seeram and Travis, 1997).
Radiation protection consist of two types of triads (Seeram and Travis, 1997). The first triad was justification, optimization and dose limitation. Justification is usually required when there is a device or machine that is recently discovered by the radiologist. They need to justify the capability of the machine in producing effective results. Plus, justification also includes the net benefit that will obtained by the patient who undergone the radiotherapy. Before conducting the radiotherapy, radiologist need to justify the reason on subjecting the patient to radiation and the patient must be clinically indicated for therapeutic diagnostic purposes.
The second aspect is optimization which discuss about as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) (Seeram and Travis, 1997). This principle will ensure a good outcome from the treatment can be obtained without giving extra radiation to the patient. The technologist need to make sure that this ALARA concept as well as the radiation protection principles as a whole is applied in the management of patient therapy. In order to make sure this concept can be successfully applied, the technologists need to master about the concept of dose like ‘what influence the dose’ and ‘how to decrease the dose (Seeram and Travis, 1997).
The third aspect is dose limitation which commonly refer to the workers (Seeram and Travis, 1997). The workers need to comply with the maximum dose of radiation that they can receive when working in this type of working area. Some of the authorities had set the maximum dose that the workers can be exposed in a year. This is to make sure that the workers’ health are always in good condition without giving any harmful effects to their body.
The second triad was time, distance and shielding. Technologist needs to make sure that these two triads are applied. For time, the technologist makes attempt to make sure that the exposure time is short to protect the patient. Plus, for the distance, the technologist will usually ask the doctors or nurses to refrain from going near to the patient while he himself in lead apron attire when handling the patient. The third aspect in this radiation protection is shielding where lead will be used in the area where the radiation exposure is high (Seeram and Travis, 1997).
The objective of this experiment is to understand the important aspect to make sure that patient and technologist are protected from radiation. The three essential aspects are time, distance and shielding. Plus, student can relate the three aspects with the dose of radiation. In addition, student can also learn the safety precaution when handling with radioactive materials. Next, students can also familiarize of using survey meter. Student may also learn the significance of radiation protection to the human well-being.
It can be hypothesised that time is directly proportional to the dose of radiation while distance is inversely proportional to the radiation. Plus, lead has the lowest amount of HVL values because it has the highest density compare to copper and lead.


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