IntroductionMany scholars have come up with different definitions of anger. Anger can be defined as an emotional state that may vary from minor irritation to a serious rage. Anger has many effects on individuals examples are: blood pressure, increase in heart beat, and lastly increase in the level of non ad relines and ad reline. Some Scholar perceives hunger as a brain response to threat of pain. Incase an individual takes an action to stop the threat; it becomes the feeling that predominates cognitively, behavioral, and physiological. Anger is a reaction response that as undergone evolution to enable an individual to deal with a threat.
Anger can be divided into three classes these are: hasty and sudden anger, settled and deliberate hunger and the last class of hunger is dispositional hunger.Hasty and sudden anger is usually related with the impulse of preserving ones self. It usually experienced between individuals and animals.
It occurs when an individual or an animal is in a trap or his tormented. Settled and deliberate anger is the second type of anger, it’s usually experienced as a reaction to deliberate harm or when an individual is not treated fair by another individual. Hasty sudden anger and settled deliberate anger are episodic. Dispositional anger relies on the character traits of an individual rather than on cognition or instincts.
Anger can cause the following consequences: it can mobilize psychological resources and enhance the courage of correcting a wrong behavior and address grievances.However all definitions are related to unpleasant feelings, aggressive behavior, the desire to revenge, frustration and psychological arousal. Despite being classified in terms of biological grounds anger is usually interpreted, regulated and managed in different contexts depending on the environment. Anger is usually affected by culture and the environment. Thomas defines anger as a feeling of displeasure or distress in reaction to a certain provocation.
While according to Thomas hostility is a pervasive and bearing mental attitude that is antagonistic. Literature review (difference in anger expression)Men and women are same in almost all the aspects other than when it comes to anger. Both of them are ashamed of their anger even though they experience their anger in different ways. Many researchers have concluded that men and women experience different types of anger.
The main thing that affects how they will handle their anger is the gender socialization.According to Professor Thomas S men have been told to try to avert their hunger. In the event that men have a conflict they have always solved it by fighting, while women have been urged to try and cool down their hunger.
Men has always viewed anger as masculine, hence the only way that they can solve anger is through physical means. For women solving anger through fighting or any other physical means is discouraged. Women do have a mentality that anger is unfeminine and unpleasant. Hence the only way that they get over anger is by misdirecting it towards passive aggressive maneuvers like engaging in destructive gossiping or sulking. According to Thomas both men and women needs to be come out clearly and forthrightly when angry, they also need to adopt a sound problem solving technique. (Averill 1982)There is a notion that exists amongst many people that women cannot handle their anger, this notion has been questioned by many scholars. According to Professor Tangney of University of George Manson women do not have trouble with their hunger; it’s only that they manage it in a different way compared to men. Women are not aggressive as compared to men when it comes to anger expression.
They are usually proactive and uses’ many techniques while solving their problem with the individual whom they are angry with. According to a survey conducted by Thomas in 1993, about things that makes women angry in the modern world, the outcome of the study was that root causes of the women anger were injustices that they were facing, other people’s irresponsibility’s and the fact that thy felt being powerless.Although researchers are still on the process of coming up with the causes of men anger, researchers have continued to come up with facts to proof that men and women are difference in terms of the way they experience and they way they express their hunger. Men normally experiences impulsive anger, and they also have a revenge motive towards their anger. Women are usually angry for a longer period; they are also less likely to express their anger, women are also more resentful, compared to the men.
Most women overcome their anger by using indirect aggression method (writing off) the individual who has made them angry. Most women do this through avoiding talking to these individuals because of their anger.As women and men become older anger also decreases, there is a difference in anger domains between women and men and anger decreases for those individuals who are older than fifty years. Even though in this domain men are still aggressive compared to women, women tend to maintain a longer episodes of anger compared to the men.Men also like the idea of focusing on the problem rather than focusing on their emotions. According to Zeidner and Ben Zur men also express a few feeling of depression and anxiety as compared to women. Women are more adept at studying the nonverbal emotion and verbal emotion of other individuals, at communicating and expressing their feelings, and at minimizing anger. While men are adept at maximizing their anger, and hostility while minimizing their emotions when dealing with fear, guilty, vulnerability, and hurt.
Zeidner and Ben Zur concluded that men are usually out of tune with their emotions and rarely express their expression as compared to women. These differences are usually brought about by the roles that women and men play in the society. (Evelyn eta, l 2003 page 34 – 56)Another difference between women and men is the anger that they show each other when they are intimate. Anger against intimate is the most common type of anger involving couples. This usually occurs when a relationship is threatened. Researchers have found that women usually overcome this type of anger by crying or by being jealous towards the person that is causing their relation to be unstable. According to Dana Crowley the way that a woman react when facing relationship problem is usually in a way that they tend to protect the relationship rather to destroy it.
Men are usually afraid of dealing with intimate anger, and they fear driving away the people that they rely on. Women are the best when it comes to managing intimate anger. Women do resolve it by acknowledging that they have a problem, and then they speak it out with the person whom the feel is the cause of the intimate anger. These methods have been found to working out because the people concerned are able to understand the problems. (Averill 1982)According to world science another difference between women and men in terms of anger is what they choose to read do when they are angry. Women and men may pick different types of articles to read when angry.
In the study that they did they found out that women choose articles that tend to calm the while men tend to choose articles that aggravates their feelings. The difference was clearly seen when the two groups were angry and were looking for ways of retaliating. The study found out that men were reading stories which were negative as a solution to their anger. While women went for articles or stories that were positive to help them to curb their problems before confronting it. It wasn’t appropriate for women to retaliate when faced with anger but for men there was no problem.
The articles that the men were reading just aggravated them further. (World Science)Causes of the different reactionsThe differences in the way that women and men react to anger are just but a replication of power in the society. Men normally view themselves powerful than women, hence by expressing their anger the society sees it as an assortment of their power. The power discrepancies in the society are the one which brings the difference on how men and women react to anger. A man who talks with a lot of anger is always perceived as committed and passionately committed to the cause of anger. This makes anger to enhance men’s credibility.
But the society does not accept an angry woman. The perception that the society usually have towards an angry woman is that they view them as being too stringent or too emotional. And this makes the society to undermine women’s credibility (Averill 1982)Culture as a cause for the differencesIn our today society women do normally stays under secondary status. The society tend to make them be more subordinate, when little girls are growing up they already have this mentality, they take this as injustice towards them. The women are usually deprived of power, leadership, independence, and wealth. Injustices being amongst the causes of anger, the women have a good reason of being angry. However the men who are the beneficiary allows anger to develop in them, by accepting the fact that widespread discontent amongst the women is threatening the current status of quo in the society, men have taken steps to outlaw anger.
The culture has used physical forces to stifle any disruption that may occur. This has made women to view their anger as illegitimate reaction to the injustice that they are facing in the society. (Jean 1974)According to Mark women moves away from sadness to forgiveness, this fact is attributed to the fact that women fear being abandoned. Many women have grown up with the mentality that masculinity is potent and the mentality that women need men in order for them to make it in life.
(Evelyn eta, l 2003 page 77)Most boys get their ideas of anger from their father when they are young. The father normally imparts to their sons a feeling of superiority over their female counter parts. The feeling of masculinity makes men to transform their anger into an aggressive behavior. In most culture feeling of vulnerability and of anger get intertwined hence making men to be aggressive. (Evelyn eta, l 2003 page 78)ConclusionAnger is one of the harmful emotions which differentiate women and men.
Though they look alike in all perspectives anger do differentiate them. Men usually react aggressively towards anger as compared to their female counterparts.There is need to manage hunger amongst all the individuals, this is because of the devastating effects that anger have towards human beings. The following are the examples of what anger can cause: anger can result into a coronary heart diseases, like heart attack, anger can also disturbance of heart beat, anger causes high blood pressure, anger causes blood vessel diseases, anger increases the probability of a person being attacked by stroke and lastly people who are prone to anger takes time to heal in the event that they get injured.We should avoid anger, because it causes more harm than good to human beings and to the society at large.Reference:Averill J 1982 – “Aggression & Anger” New YorkAnthony R 1993, “Masculinity in the Society”, Oxford publishers page 34Evelyn S, & Robert W, “Anger reflection by women and men” Dian Publishers, page 23 -217Jean B 1974, “Avoid anger” Harvard pressNorbert E 1982, “The effects of culture on anger” New York Times, 23 April 1982.