Research paper on muscle biology

It is not due to diseases, but a normal part of the aging process, and multiple physiological and psychological factors seem to nutrient to it. Sarcophagi has been associated with a higher risk of falls, incident disability and all-cause mortality in the elderly. Despite this phenomenon has major clinical, social and economic consequences in older persons, its study is still limited and/or partial.The major issues making difficult the design of clinical trials on sarcophagi are: the multidimensional physiological mechanisms determining it, the lack of standardized definitions, the difficulties in operatively defining this dynamic mechanism, and the different methodologies able to estimate the muscle mass and function. The present review will 1) overview the current clinical and research issues related to the study of sarcophagi in the elderly, and 2) discuss the possible solutions on the basis of evidence on the topic.The term “sarcophagi” (from Greek Sara for flesh, and penis for loss) is commonly used to describe one of the most noticeable age-related modifications, that is the progressive decline of muscle mass, strength and function [1, 2]. Skeletal muscle declines in both men and women with aging. Muscle strength and mass reach their peaks in the teens and twenties, and begin to fall in he thirties.

A 10-15% rate of decline in muscle strength has been estimated per decade of life after the age of 50 years. This decline becomes even faster after 75 years of age [3].The sarcophagi phenomenon has been reported in a wide range of species in animals as well as in humans. After all, if this loss of muscle mass is an age-related phenomenon, it ought to be universal because every living being is aging. For example, progressive loss of muscle mass and function has been reported in Characterizations elegant, a short-lived nematode, extensively studied to explore the aging process, ND whose genome was completely sequenced [4].

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In fact, a gradual disorientation and decrease in myosin thick filaments in the sorcerers of older Characterizations elegant have been observed.Similarly to what occurring in humans, nematodes with earlier motor dysfunction show lower life expectancies. Sarcophagi is a bidirectional phenomenon (Fig. 1) [5], because simultaneously considering (by definition) declines in both quantity (I. E.

, muscle mass) and quality (I. E. Muscle function/strength). Nevertheless, large part of the current evidence on the topic is mainly focused on muscle function/strength modifications ether than also considering the parallel body composition changes.

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