Research Task on Developmental psychology Essay

C1- It is important to plan to meet the care and learning needs of all children because all children have individual needs that need to be met.

For example a child with a learning disability might struggle with the work that more able children are doing. Practitioners will therefore need to differentiate the work so the child is able to attempt it. This way the child will also feel included in the setting because they are able to participate.Many children are from different cultural backgrounds and they have different needs. For example for a Muslim child practitioners must consider providing halal food for the child and also when they are giving out snacks it must be suitable for vegetarians. It is vital that practitioners ensure there is appropriate provision in the setting to keep children safe and secure. For example making sure that the correct adult to staff ratios are applied as children’s welfare is paramount.The new EYFS 2012 states that: “ For children aged three and over at any time in registered early years provision operating outside the hours of 8 am and 4 pm, and between the hours of 8 am and 4 pm when a person with Qualified Teacher Status, Early Years Professional Status or another full and relevant level 6 qualification, is not working directly with the children: • There must be at least one member of staff for every eight children; • At least one member of staff must hold a full and relevant level 3 qualification; • At least half of all” (DoE, 2012)It is important that practitioners meet requirements of curriculum frameworks and legislation to ensure children’s care and learning needs are met.

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Making the link between the classroom and workplace can help young people to see the relevance of their learning and understand the contribution that they can make to their schools and colleges, to their community and to the economy. They can feel valued and involved and experience challenge and enjoyment; their confidence can increase with, potentially, a positive impact on their levels of attainment and achievement. Children and young people should have opportunities to: build knowledge and understanding of the workplace, what employers may expect of them And what they should expect from employment > experience enterprising activities and an enterprising culture > have access to more specific opportunities for learning through Skills for Work courses or (Scottish Government, 2008) The legislation Health and safety work act 1974 also influences working practices because it underpins legal responsibilities for all employers within the setting to prevent risks. It must meet the standards set by this act as children will be using it every day as a working environment.For example a child who may be in a wheelchair will need more space to get around the environment therefore it must be safe for the child.

Practitioners must assure there are no objects lying around that could cause the child with the disability to be in danger. Keeping confidential information is essential, however if practitioners know confidential information of a child which could affect them or their family then it should be discussed with the correct person with permission. This is to ensure the child is not at risk of anything.This information should be shared with their parents as well so they are able to get advice from others.

If the information is going to affect a child then it must be dealt with promptly and practitioners must seek advice from relevant professionals such as a safeguarding officer or health worker if they hope to try help the child. This information needs to be considered in planning because if the child needs additional support then it can be included. C2/C4- Children’s care and learning needs should be met through planning. For example routine plans will show how a child’s care needs will be met during the day.They should be planned and organised according to each individual in the setting as some may have additional needs.

Practitioners will have set routines for ‘Meal Time’ where all children’s lunchtime will be for example, at 12:00 pm. However some children may need a sleep at this time so the plan needs to be flexible to meet their needs. Another example of a care routine is ‘Hand washing’ which should be done before having their lunch or tea time in some settings, and always after using the toilet. In my practice, before lunch and tea time children have to line up by the door and four children are sent at a time to wash their hands.A practitioner is also with them to ensure they wash their hands thoroughly before going to eat.

After they have had their dinner they use wipes to clean their hands and face. There are many routines that are used in child care settings. In a private day nursery they will also have a sleep time routine for the young babies usually in baby room. Sometimes they have a set time to be bottle fed so after that they can have a nap. Practitioners have to lay down a clean blanket for the child when they lay down to prevent germs. There are also many learning needs for children which have routines as well.Practitioners must plan to meet children’s needs so they are able to participate but also fulfil to their potential. An example of a routine practitioners plan can be outdoor play.

This is because they need to ensure the outdoor area is safe for children to play in. When children have outdoor play a risk assessment check should be done before children are let out. Practitioners need to make sure there is no glass, rubbish, needles or excretion that children could come into contact with as this could have an impact on the child.

This is why effective planning must be done to support children’s care and learning needs because, “Good planning is the key to making children’s learning effective, exciting, varied and progressive. Good planning enables practitioners to build up knowledge about how individual children learn and make progress. It also provides opportunities for practitioners to think and talk about how to sustain a successful learning environment. This process works best when all practitioners working in the setting are involved.Practitioners who work alone will benefit from opportunities to discuss their plans with others working in similar settings” (DoE, 2012). Effective planning such as using Possible Lines of Development (PLOD) A PLOD is used to help practitioners observe children so they are able to identify the child’s interest so they can plan to meet their individual needs.

“Nursery staff made plans to support and extend Alice’s learning with a PLOD chart. Alice is learning at a deep level; at nursery, we want to build on what she can do and encourage her to develop an interest in what excites her.PLOD chart we have developed helps us to integrate our observations of the children’s interests and schemas, and at the same time make links with the early learning goals” (Whalley, 2007). s However using PLODS could also have a negative outcome, because the PLOD may be not up to date and the child may have other interests. PLODS can help practitioners meet children’s needs.

Usually they can find out a child’s interest through observations then link it into a PLOD. This is because a PLOD is based around the child’s interest so it is a guideline for them to use so then they are able to create ctivities based on their interests so the child can develop. For example if a child is interested in creative activities, the practitioner can then plan to meet the child’s needs, for example by planning a creative activity using paints to make a pointillism picture. Effective planning can then help practitioners reflect on children’s strengths and weaknesses so when they plan again they can change things.

For example a maths activity may have been too easy for a child who is in a high ability group but then too difficult for a low ability child.Practitioners will then have to differentiate the work for both children to ensure they are working to the best of their ability. This will then benefit children’s learning development and they will also be able to progress further. Practitioners will also use Curriculum Frameworks to plan appropriately for example working with other agencies and professionals.

Practitioners may have a child with behavioural issues; therefore they may need professional advice to plan for the child so they could then work with an Educational Psychologist to try improving the child’s behaviour as this will have a huge impact on their learning.There are many professionals that practitioners may work alongside to ensure effective planning Is done for the child. If effective planning is not done then the child will stay at the same stage and will not be able to progress further.

For example for a child who has a disability may find everything to with care and learning very difficult so practitioners can then work with an Occupational Therapist to enhance the child’s care and learning needs. The Therapist may first observe the child to find out their interests and then think of different ways to help the child achieve it; these can then be included in future planning.The Early Years Foundation Stage is also used for planning to meet children’s needs.

EYFS states that there should a person in charge of behaviour management policy in every setting. This is so they are able to support practitioners and other staff on how to manage children’s behaviour in any circumstances. “A named practitioner should be responsible for behaviour management in every setting. They must have the necessary skills to advise other staff on behaviour issues and to access. (DoE, 2012) If a child has behaviour issues then it is vital that practitioners plan together to support the situation appropriately. Planning can support practitioners in supporting the child; for example a teacher may plan activities to help a child to progress in communication skills and the planning will help the child’s teaching assistant or support worker to know what to do with the child and what their role should be.

Planning can also help practitioners to look back on an activity and reflect on any weaknesses of the activity so that they can avoid similar situations arising again.An example from my practice is when a Diwali activity was put out for a child, but she was not interested in doing it. If the activity had been planned more carefully it may have met the child’s needs and interests better. C3- Some of the skills needed for planning are, observation, reflection, communication, creative thinking, giving or receiving criticism and feedback. These skills are needed to plan for children’s care and learning needs. Practitioners need to be able to observe so they can plan activities for children and then reflect on their strengths and weaknesses for next time.

Reflecting on their previous planning will enable them to enhance their future planning. Creative thinking is also important for planning as one of the prime areas of EYFS 2012 is ‘Expressive Arts and Design. “Expressive arts and design involves enabling children to explore and play with a wide range of media and materials, as well as providing opportunities and encouragement for sharing their thoughts, ideas and feelings through a variety of activities in art, music, movement, dance, role-play, and design and technology. (DoE, 2012) This is why creative activities should be included in planning.

Practitioners need to ensure they act upon any criticism they may have been given to make sure children’s learning is better. Children’s welfare is paramount so they should plan to meet all children’s individual needs. Practitioners need to have professional skills to be able to plan efficiently; this is so children can develop their learning skills further.

If good planning was not being used in the setting this could have serious consequences for not only the children but the staff and the school.For example if OFSTED were to visit they will observe everything in the setting so practitioners need to ensure they have the correct skills to plan. Professional skills are vital in order to plan for children’s care and learning needs. For example for a child who may be going through transition may be finding it extremely difficult in the new environment and is reluctant to join in with everyone. So the practitioner will then need to have good trustworthy relationship with the child and the carer to find out what the child’s interests are so they could participate. Build a trusting relationship with the child and family (or other carers) to secure their involvement in the process. ” “Support the child through key transition points but, where necessary, ensures a careful and planned ‘handover’ takes place if it is more appropriate for someone else to be the lead professional.

” (CWDC, 2007) Because the child has been through a transition, coming to a new setting may be quite frightening for them especially at a young age. It is essential that the practitioner plans to ensure that the child feels secure.In child care settings it is vital that practitioners reflect on their planning to identify strengths and weaknesses. Reflecting will enable the practitioner to make amends for when they plan again. An example of a reflective cycle they could use to evaluate is ‘Gibbs Reflective Cycle’ (Brookes University, 2011) Gibbs reflective cycle enables practitioners to reflect on each stage of the activity for example, they can use the cycle to reflect on what happened during the activity, so if a child was struggling with the activity and was getting agitated what could the practitioner have done to solve this problem.

The reflective cycle is a guideline to support them with their future planning so the same situation does not happen again. By using this cycle practitioners will be able to look back on a certain situation and learn from it by using new knowledge to help them in future similar situations. Reflection encourages them to become more aware of children’s learning. When OFSTED come to the setting and inspect they will look for evidence of effective planning to ensure the practitioner is performing well. They will also observe learning taking place in the setting. We inspect further education and skills to provide information to learners and users, promote improvement, and gather evidence to see how well a provider is performing. Ofsted evaluates the quality and effectiveness of the education and training provided and look at how it meets the needs of learners.

Learners can use the report when deciding which provider will suit them best. We always value feedback from learners. ” (Ofsted, 2012) When Ofsted inspect it is essential that practitioners plan with professional skills such as having good team work in the setting.For example working with all the staff to ensure the activity gets done without any distractions. Also time management, practitioners will need to plan effectively they need to know how long each activity is going to last for and what they need to get done in that period of time. C5- It is important to plan an enabling environment which meets all children’s care and learning needs because they will feel more comfortable within the setting; this is important because it will help children to feel valued and build their trust which supports their emotional development.Adults also need to empathize with children so they are able to express their feelings and opinions.

Outdoor and indoor environments can support and promote children’s development and learning as they are able to gain different experiences, physically, socially and emotionally. In outdoor environments children can interact with their peers through activities and experiences. Many children may not have this opportunity; therefore exploring outdoor environment can be a benefit to them.This is because children can develop many skills such as interpersonal skills, team working skills as well as becoming more independent.

It will also benefit those children who are unfamiliar with woodlands areas and natural spaces; they will also gain confidence through this experience. They will also bond and build relationships with other children and adults but also become more familiar with them. This can promote children’s learning because they know they are in a safe and secure place to fulfil to their potential.A supportive social environment will be one where adults acknowledge children’s individual needs so they can give them the support they need; this will allow practitioners to identify their learning style, then they can differentiate work for children with additional needs , this way children will not feel alienated in the environment because they are also able to participate. For example a child with special needs will need extra support which can be provided by having a teaching assistant.The teaching assistant will then be able to explain to the child in basic terms what they need to do for an activity so they are able to attempt it. Also the environment needs to be homely for children so they do not feel uncomfortable as it needs to be suitable for them to learn.

If the place is homely then children are willing to come and learn without hesitation. Also many children are distressed when their parents leave the setting and they get very emotional, they need some kind of distraction maybe something similar to what they have at home so they feel happier.Having a homely environment for emotional children can be beneficial as they can feel more secure.

EYFS 2012 states: “Children learn best when they are healthy, safe and secure, when their individual needs are met, and when they have positive relationships with the adults caring for them. The safeguarding and welfare requirements, specified in this section, are designed to help providers create high quality settings which are welcoming, safe and stimulating, and where children are able to enjoy learning and grow in confidence. (Department for Education, 2012) The initiative Forrest schools is also a good outcome for children to explore the outdoor environment for themselves. They will also have a better understanding of natural surroundings and show respect for the environment. This is important because children do not particularly know about respecting natural surroundings. For example many children will pick flowers and plants when they are outside this is because children are not aware they are damaging the environment. Children must be told why it is important not to damage the environment so they are able to have a clear understanding.

Working in teams and interacting with others is also important, this will allow children to build relationships with others but they will also have the ability to solve problems as a group by sharing ideas with each other. Many activates children participate at school are done in groups. For example sports games are played in groups this allows children to learn from each other. “Children are part of a team at school without even knowing it. There are activities that emphasize team work and it is important to build those relationships.

The earlier kids learn the dynamics of working together with a team the better off team building skills will be as an adult. ” http://www. teachingchildrenmanners. com/teaching-children-social-skills/the-importance-of-teaching-children-team-work 5/10/12 C6- Child development theories, such as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs which was a pyramid with levels that Maslow suggested should be in place in settings to support the care needs of children, need to be considered because children will have different needs that need to be met so they can progress further.

This theory will be used in practice for example by children being provided with meals and snacks to help them concentrate throughout the day. Children need to be kept warm, have shelter, be provided with food and drink to meet their biological and Physiological needs. Then they are able to progress onto the next level of the pyramid which is keeping safe. Safety needs are essential, as children need to be free from fear in order to have a good education. “Maslow’s five stage hierarchy of needs: 1. Biological and Physiological needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc. 2.Safety needs – protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.

3. Belongingness and Love needs – work group, family, affection, relationships, etc. 4. Esteem needs – self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc. 5. Self-Actualization needs – realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. ” (Saul McLeod, 2007) Also providing water for children so they do not get dehydrated and regular routines such as washing hands, nappy changing for babies and toileting these are part of children’s physiological needs.

This theory can be used in practice to ensure that children feel safe and secure in the environment. Practitioners must ensure that children have the right supervision levels so they are cared for properly. Also doors and gates must be locked so children can’t escape from the building or strangers can’t enter. This links to the safety tier of the pyramid, and is important because if children do not feel safe they will not be able to concentrate, therefore they will not be able to fulfil to their potential. “John Bowlby’s attachment theory is a special emotional relationship that involves an exchange of comfort, care, and pleasure. (Cherry n. d. ) This can link into practice as all children should be comforted and cared for in a childcare setting so they feel valued and want to come and learn.

Children’s welfare is paramount, therefore it is vital children are put into consideration at all times. In settings children can become very distressed when they are separated from their mothers especially. In these situations, settings can allocate key workers for children to help them settle in. Having a key worker will have a positive impact on the child as they will have a close bond, which well then boost the child’s self-esteem.John Bowlby’s attachment theory supports children’s care needs because it assists children to have a good start in life and help them to build future bonds. It will help them to make connections with others. “Psychologist Mary Ainsworth expanded greatly upon Bowlby’s original work.

Her ground-breaking “Strange Situation” study revealed the profound effects of attachment on behaviour. In the study, researchers observed children between the ages of 12 and 18 months as they responded to a situation in which they were briefly left alone and then reunited with their mothers (Ainsworth, 1978). (Kendra Cherry ) http://psychology. about. com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01. htm 5/10/12 Mary Ainsworth experimented a procedure called ‘A Strange Situation’ there are 8 stages to this procedure, Ainsworth wanted to find a way of measuring the strength of the attachment bond between mother and child. Ainsworth concluded that there were three major styles of attachment: “Secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment. ” 5/10/12 “Ainsworth contributed the concept of the attachment figure as a secure base from which an infant can explore the world.

” http://psychology. bout. com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01. htm This can link into practice as it supports children’s social and emotional care needs because it will help them to form good relationships with practitioners and peers. It will enable children to become more confident by exploring independently without their carer being there.

Mary Ainsworth’s ‘Secure Attachment’ could be implemented in practice for children who are very distressed. Practitioners can choose a key worker for the child so they get familiar with them, and also parents can share information about the child to the key worker which is essential.Generally when children get distressed when parents leave key workers are able to help them overcome this issue. “Bowlby believed that patterns of making relationships are formed in the very early stages of a child’s life, through their very first relationship with their main attachment figure. ‘The primary attachment, the first relationship, will make a sort of blueprint or internal model in the brain for…

relationships in the future’ it is therefore vital that children experience positive and loving early attachments, from which they can grow in confidence and independence: ‘Securely attached children have positive self-beliefs.They understand themselves through the reactions and responses of those close to them. Positive messages from their attachment figures help to build self-esteem and trust’ “http://eyfs. info/articles/article. php? Attachment-Theory-and-the-Key-Person-Approach-66 Accessed 11-10-12 Key workers should be able to build an attachment with children as they meet the child’s needs. For example they look after the child, help them with education, change nappies, feed them if they are babies, and give them a cuddle if they are unhappy and give them all the support they need.This way they start to build a ‘secure attachment.

’ C7- Child development theories support planning for learning and play but it is also a guideline for practitioners as they could implement it in practice as well. Montessori approach can be used in practice by allowing children to take responsibility of their own learning. She believed that children learnt best through practical experiences. Practitioners can give children a range of indoor and outdoor practical activities to explore so they are learning through play.For example creative activities which may be linked to religious festivals, such as bonfire night, practitioners can give them an activity where they can make a firework display picture. This is more fun way for children to develop their learning further because the activity is enjoyable.

Another example which links to Montessori approach is Forrest Schools as this enables children to learn through practical experiences in the outdoor world. For example, with help from a practitioner they could be building a fire log through this activity they can learn safety awareness of making fires.Forrest school activities are based on a particular theme for example one session may be about insects. “All sessions are designed around the needs of your group; ensure that they are learner-led. Sessions are designed around a theme, themes are sometimes subtle such as evolving or exploring the site or more obvious such as Romans, butterflies, spies, fairies or nature investigators “(Forrest Schools, 2011) In my placement children have the freedom to do an activity they choose to do they are not forced to do activities.Children are not placed under the restriction of needing to do what other children may be doing. At my setting they have free play where they can take out which ever toys they like to play with or do a set activity such as mark making or messy activity.

They can also have time to play outdoor with their friends. Children are playing but also learning by engaging with other children and joining in activities with them. For example building a train track with a few children will improve their communication skills. Montessori also links in with Piaget’s developmental theory.

Like Piaget, she saw children as active in their own learning. ” www. scotlandscolleges. ac. uk/component/… /task,doc_download/ Accessed 7/11/12 Montessori and Piaget both proposed that children develop in sequences, however they disagree on timing.

“Piaget believed that children had a specific period of cognitive or intellectual development, with other children not reaching their ‘concrete operational’ stages till seven. ” “Maria Montessori and Jean Piaget are two educational philosophers whose theories are still being used and influence today’s educational system.Both of these theorists developed their own stages of child development and were able to base education on these stages.

” http://catalogue. pearsoned. co.

uk/preface/0132286211. pdf 7/11/12 Fredrick Froebel and Maria Montessori both focused on the value of spontaneous play. They have many similarities as well as differences. Fredrick Froebel also links with Montessori as he was best known for gifts and occupations which were used in classrooms. For example objects such as, different shapes like circles, squares and triangles, wooden boxes and many other objects which children used practically for building and making things.By using gifts and occupations children are becoming stronger with their fine motor skills. This is because they are able to use their hands in a range of different ways.

Froebel is best known for his “gifts” and “occupations” to guide and structure play. Gifts were wooden boxes, cubes, cylinders, triangles and rectangles, as well as knitted balls and various geometric shapes. Children used the gifts for pattern making and block play, building their imaginations.

The occupations involved weaving, clay moulding and paper folding to increase fine motor skills and focus attention. Laurie Carpenter 1995-2012) For example practitioners could use this theory to help them plan for a maths lesson. The practitioner can bring a variety of shapes in and children can discuss the properties of the shape or if it is 2D or 3D shape to increase children’s learning through play. When children have free play the practitioner could put out building objects such as Lego, so they can build using their imagination and also build patterns and interact with other children by sharing ideas from each other for their


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