Sickle cells can cause clogged blood vessels and result in damaged organs or even a stroke. In Dalton, sickle cells are more susceptible to rupturing and lead to a person being tired or fatigued, known as anemia (Primary Health care 2012).
“Peculiar elongated and sickle-shaped,” quoted by Ernest Edward Irons in 1904, was how sickle cell anemia was first described (Heroic 2001). Intern Ernest Irons had be examining patient Walter Clement Noel at the Presbyterian Hospital under physician James Bryan Heroic (The Sickle Cell Association of New Jersey, Inc 2010). Ernest noticed the red blood cells to be usually shaped.Later In 1910, Dry.
Heroic became the first to publish a document on sickle cell called the Archives of Internal Medicine (The Sickle Cell Association of New Jersey, Inc 2010). Nearly thirty years later, in November 1949, chemist Lines Palling and assistants became the first to demonstrate how sickle cell disease occurs in abnormally red blood cells (Leslie 2005). Lines published a paper named Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease, describing how patients with SAD, that their hemoglobin had a dollars electrical charge than that off normal healthy persons (Stresses 1999).In is paper he explained the cause of sickle cell disease and that It was from a molecular mutation in a protein and an inherited gene (Leslie 2005).
He also, discovered that majority of people who had inherited SAC were from an African decent (Stresses 1999). In 1956, Palling supported the idea that “man is simply a collection of molecules” and “can be understood in terms of molecules” (Stresses 1999). Lines and his colleague’s findings were the first historical discovery of how a genetic disease was tied to a mutation of a specific gene (The Sickle Cell Association of New Jersey, Inc 2010).Through his discoveries set the beginning of many speeches and papers to come. Lines Palling and assistants discoveries set the foundation of what today’s scientists are finding. Well-known and significant figure of sickle cell anemia in more recent years is Dry.
Charles F. Whiten (The Sickle Cell Association of New Jersey, Inc 2010). Dry. Whiten in the early sass’s saw that families and people with SAD were lacking services. To help the people with sickle cell anemia and through his own efforts, the Sickle Cell Disease Association of America (SCADA) was founded (The Sickle Cell Association of NewJersey, Inc 2010).
In 2010, the Registry and Surveillance System for Homogeneousness (RuSH) was first started to collect data on population-based people with SAD (Center of Disease Prevention and Control CDC 2012). Currently this project still assists in determining how many people are infected with SAC and Today, current research has found SAC to be a gene derived from four main separate mutations events, one from Saudi Arabia and three in Africa (Illinois Department of Public Health 2007).These genes have been found to be from 3,000 to ,000 generations ago, nearly 1 50,000 years ago (The Sickle Cell Association of New layers, Inc 2010). Research has also found that the most common types of sickle cell disease are Hubs, Hubs and Hubs beta Tallahassee (Illinois Department of Public Health 2007). People with Hubs form of SAD inherit two sickle cell genes “S”, one from each parent, this is the most serve case is SAD (NIH Medicine Plus). People with Hubs Inherit a sickle cell gene “S” from one parent and from the other parent a gene for an abnormal hemoglobin called “C”, this is a milder case of SAD (NIH Medicine Plus 2011).In people with Hubs beta Tallahassee, forms inherit one sickle cell gene “S” from one parent and one gene for beta Tallahassee, (another type of anemia) this case can have two forms, “O” or “O” being the more severer form (NIH Medicine Plus). Rare forms of SAD include Hobos, Hubs and Hubs (Illinois Department of Public Health 2007).
This blood disorder, like skin or eye color is hereditary (Leslie 2005). Though sickle cell anemia is a hereditary trait, does not mean a person will have the disease Connecticut Department of Public Health 2008).A person can only get sickle cell asses if both parents carry the gene and/or can later develop in life (Primary Health Care 2012). Individuals with SAC traits do not usually have any medically problems and carry out normal everyday lives (Illinois Department of Public Health 2007). A person with this gene does not typically “feel” the symptoms like other diseases such as Chromes (Connecticut Department of Public Health 2008).
SAD affects almost all races, especially decedents from Africa, India, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Central and South America, and Mediterranean (Connecticut Department of Public Health 2008).This disease is yearly estimated to affect more than 75,000 Americans and millions of people worldwide, primary of those of an African decent; 1 out of every 12 African-Americans carry SAC trait (Illinois Department of Public Health 2007). Over 1,000 babies are born each year in America Ninth this disease; worldwide there are 300,000 babies with this disease (World Health Organization 2011). SAD occurs among 1 out of every 36,000 Hispanic-American and 1 out of every 500 African-American adults in America (Center of Disease Prevention and Control CDC 2012). 1999 through the year 2002, morality rate for African-American children ages 0-4 (with SAD) was 42%, in 1983-1986 was as high as 68% Center of Disease Prevention and Control CDC 2012).
Individuals who both carry SAC gene and are planning on having a baby are recommend seeking a medical doctors advice. Both parents carrying the gene set risk of their child having a 25% of sickle cell disease (Primary Health Care 2012). Newborns that have been diagnosed with the disease are given antibiotics for treatment and to avoid infections and may also be given vaccinations (National Heart and Blood Institute People Science Health 2011). Parents should be educated about the disease and how to manage it.In spite of the many advancements and treatments given nowadays, there is no cure for sickle cell disease, but can be treated (Straps 2000). Treatment for adults acetaminophen (Ethylene) or an anti-inflammatory drug such as ibuprofen. A heating pad, rest and lots of fluids are also advised.
For more severe cases, may be seeking help at a day treatment center, hospital or even the emergency room (National Heart and Blood Institute People Science Health 2011). Only for a small number of people, loot and marrow stem cell transplants may offer a cure (National Heart and Blood Institute People Science Health 2011).Sickle cell anemia is a blood disorder that far too many people know little about and should be educated on. Over the past 100 years, doctors and chemists have come to the discoveries of this genetic blood disorder through many observations and experiments. We now know how it is caused, how it affects the human body, how it’s an inherited gene and what treatments to take in case of having the disease. Sickle cell anemia, like most, varies from one person to the next.
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