To demonstrate the effect of angle of launch on range of a projectile. To demonstrate that the moment of inertia of a rod changes with the change of position of a pair of equal weights attached to the rod. To study variation of volume of a gas with its pressure at constant temperature using a doctors’ syringe. To demonstrate Bernoulli theorem with simple illustrations To demonstrate that heat capacities of equal masses of different materials are different. To demonstrate free oscillations of different vibrating systems.
To demonstrate resonance with a set of coupled indulges. To demonstrate longitudinal and transverse waves. To demonstrate the phenomenon of beats, due to superposition of waves produced by two sources of sound of slightly different frequencies To demonstrate resonance using an open pipe. To demonstrate the direction of torque. To demonstrate the law of moments. Recommended Textbooks.
Time: 3 Hours Electrostatics Current Electricity Magnetic effect of current & Magnetism Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating current Electromagnetic Waves Optics Dual Nature of Matter Atoms and Nuclei Electronic Devices communication systems Total Total pennons : 180 70 Marks 08 07 08 08 03 14 04 06 07 05 70 Unit l: Electrostatics (Pennons 25) Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field nines, electric dipole, electric field 89 due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gausses theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside). Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotent surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric plantations, capacitors and capacitance, capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. Van De Graff generator. Unit II: Current Electricity (Pennons 22) Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-l characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistively and conductivity.
Carbon resistors, color code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and Neff of a cell,combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kerchiefs laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, meter bridge. Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing Neff of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell. Unit Ill: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism Concept of magnetic field, Rooster’s experiment.
Boot – Savant law and its application o current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and tutorial solenoids, Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer- its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a evolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, did- and offer – magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets. 90 Unit lb.
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents (Periods 20) Electromagnetic induction; Faraday laws, induced Neff and current; Lens’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction. Alternating currents, peak and arms value of alternating current/voltage; reactant and impedance; LLC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LLC series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current. AC generator and transformer. (Periods 4) Need for displacement current, Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only).
Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses. Unit VI: Optics (Pennons 30) Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lawmaker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, combination of a lens and a mirror.
Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light – blue color of sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments : Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypothermia) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers. Wave optics: Wave front and Hugger’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Hugger’s principle.
Interference, Young double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescope. Plantations, plane pollarded light, Brewster law, uses of plane pollarded eight and Polaroid. Unit VI’: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation (Periods 8) Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lanyard’s observations; Einstein photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.
Matter waves-wave nature of particles, De Broglie relation. Davisson-Germen experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained). Unit VIII: Atoms & Nuclei (Periods 18) Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford model of atom; Boor model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. 91 Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotopes. Radioactivity’s, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law.
Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its Unit ‘X: Electronic Devices Energy bands in solids (Qualitative ideas only) conductor, insulator and semiconductor; semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Keener diode; Keener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor, transistor as an amplifier (common emitter infatuation) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, AND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.
Unit X: Communication Systems (Periods 10) Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave. Practical (Total Periods 60) The record, to be submitted by the students, at the time of their annual examination, has to include I Record of at least 15 Experiments [with a minimum of 7 from section A and 8 from section B], to be performed by the students.