Soil Erosion and Public Health in Nigeria
Soil eroding and environmental debasement are some of the chiefly terrible public wellness and environmental jobs impacting or confronting human sort /society. Statics show that. human existences obtain 99. 7 per centum of their nutrient from the land and the remainder is obtained aquatic organic structures such as oceans and other H2O ecosystems. However. each twelvemonth more than 10 million hectares of harvest land are lost through dirt eroding and in bend this reduces the cropland that is available for human sort to bring forth his nutrient. This loss of cropland has turned to be a serious job as harmonizing to the universe wellness organisation. more than 3. 6 billion human existences are affected by undernourishment globally ( Showers. 2005 ) . Generally. dirt is being lost from land countries 10 to 40 times faster than the rate of dirt reclamation endangering future human nutrient security and environmental quality. This paper critically examines the impact of dirt eroding towards public wellness in developing states specifically Nigeria ( Showers. 2005 ) . Soil eroding is one of the cardinal environmental debasement jobs in the underdeveloped universe. Despite the tremendous being of literature on causes. and impacts of dirt eroding a concrete apprehension of this complex job is missing in the development states. The analysis discusses the negative impacts of dirt eroding towards the public wellness attention ( Cornell University. 2006 ) .
Loss of dirt from the land surfaces through the procedure of dirt eroding is distributing globally and negatively affects the production of about all natural ecosystems every bit good as agricultural. Together with the intensifying human population worldwide. dirt eroding. energy and H2O handiness. and loss of biodiversity are ranked as the premier environmental jobs all over the universe ( Beinart. 2008 ) . The alteration that is inflicted on the dirt through homo induced eroding over the old ages is important and has in bend resulted in valuable land going unproductive and finally it is abandoned. Soil eroding reduces soil quality and hence cut downing dirt productiveness every bit good that of natural. agricultural and other elated ecosystems. Public wellness can be summarized as the art and scientific discipline of avoiding disease every bit good protracting and advancing life and wellness severally. Soil eroding has been one of the major menaces to public globally as its effects have threatened the wellness system in communities ( African Development Foundation. 1994 ) .
Public Healthcare in NigeriaThe country’s national authorities is and has been responsible for the proviso of effectual wellness attention upon its people. The Nigerian authorities is the 1 responsible for supplying equal wellness attention to its people. Health attention proviso in Nigeria is a coincident responsibility done by the three grades of disposal in the state ( Vanlauwe et al. 2005 ) . Its construction is such in a manner that. the Federal government’s function is limited to organizing the traffics of the University Teaching Hospitals. Federal Medical Centers. On the other manus. the province direction focuses its duty for pull offing assorted general infirmaries. while the local authorities focal points on dispensaries. In add-on. private suppliers of wellness attention significantly contribute to wellness attention bringing. Even though the disbursement on wellness in Nigeria has risen from Naira’s 12. 48 million in 1970 to 120. 98 million in 2010. wellness attention construction remains uneffective and plays a cardinal function in the poorness position of the state. Over the last two decennaries. Nigeria’s public wellness attention system has deteriorated in big partially because of a deficiency of resources and a “brain drain” syndrome of Nigerian physicians every bit good as skilled wellness workers to other states. This every bit good has been accelerated by the industrial procedures which have seen the huge use of the land. in add-on to increased agriculture patterns to provide for the nutrient demand. This. nevertheless. has along with natural catastrophes such as dirt eroding brought along a enlistment in proviso of effectual public wellness attention ( Orisakwe et al. 2004 ) .
This is a natural procedure that involves dislodgment and remotion of dirt atoms from one topographic point to the other. There are different factors that contribute to susceptibleness of dirt to eroding every bit good as the rate at which it occurs. There are different types of dirt eroding such as H2O and air current eroding. In other footings. Soil eroding entails interrupting down. detaching. transporting. and redistributing of dirt components. This can be through legion forces such as H2O. air current. or gravitation. Globally dirt eroding has been a thing of concern and involvement. particularly its impact on cropland. This is because of its impacts on harvest productiveness and dirt quality every bit good as its off-site effects on H2O quality and measure. air quality. and biological activity. Cropland includes cultivated and non-cultivated cropland.
Soil Erosion in NigeriaNigeria is one of the African states with high population. which is around over 170 million people with more than 400 cultural groups. More than 80 % of Nigeria’s population rely wholly on farming for their upkeep and economic additions. Since the early twentieth century. dirt eroding in Nigeria has been earmarked as a key job in the state. non merely a menace to the agricultural sector. but every bit good as a menace to the public wellness through the procedure of environmental debasement. One of the major negative points to observe is that. the current rate of dirt eroding is higher than the rate of production. This has in bend threatened the current patterns in agribusiness. The high rate of dirt eroding suggests that. agricultural patterns are unsustainable under predominating geological conditions. The procedure of accepting and pull offing these procedures has important long term reverberation for cropland sustainability. natural resource province and wellness. non burying the environmental quality ( Berkhout et Al. 2011 ) .
Soil eroding is a major job which is facing wellness and land resources in Nigeria. Previous researches in the state have indicated that. more than 70 % of the country’s surface has been affected by different types of dirt eroding and of different strengths. Despite the procedure being a natural procedure. human activities such as overgrazing and glade of flora accelerates it. Degradation of land is the loss of surface soil and in bend cut downing its productiveness. Furthermore. it leads to deposit of H2O organic structures which increases suspended deposit concentration in watercourses. with attendant effects on ecosystem wellness ( Iwegbue et al. 2012 ) .
Fig. 1. 0 Gully Erosion Site at Urualla – Imo State. Nigeria ( Agbenin. 2002 )
Impact of dirt eroding on public wellness in NigeriaOne of the major concerns about dirt eroding in SA is the pollution effects caused by the dirt eroding. Soil eroding has greatly led to the loss of flora. go forthing the land bare. This leads to accretion of dust in the air. This in bend impacts air quality in the state and largely the greatly affected parts such as Camperdown and Greytown territories. Soil eroding has been one of the accelerators of the deforestation procedure in Nigeria. Deforestation is the loss of trees which are indispensable in the support of human activity every bit good as protecting the environment. Deforestation makes people’s life harder as it destroys the home grounds of legion animals and contributes to desertification. Poor air quality poses a public wellness to the Nigerian community as it leads to asthmatic jobs every bit good as other airborne diseases. In drumhead. dirt eroding leads to an addition the sum of dust carried by air current. Does this non merely at as an air pollutant and an scratchy. but besides carries along approximately more than 20 human infective disease beings such as TB and splenic fever ( Agbenin. 2002 ) .
Soil eroding leads to legion dirt taint which besides impacts on human wellness. Over the clip. there has been a important pollutant in the air every bit good as H2O. which contributes to hapless wellness among the citizens. Through the procedure of dirt eroding. the pollutants in the air and on the earth’s surface are washed into the H2O organic structures through dirt eroding. Industrialization on the other manus. has resulted in dirt pollution with heavy metals which have posed a wellness job to the Nigerian communities. Some of the harmful elements washed into H2O organic structures include quicksilver. lead. arsenic. fluoride. Asbestos. Cd. benzine and risky pesticides which all of them are chemicals of public concern. These ‘heavy metals’ are often washed into H2O organic structures and in bend polluting the fresh H2O consumed by people in Nigeria. Metallic elements such as arsenic are termed every bit carcinogenic every bit good as doing bone marrow and blood diseases when taken for a long period of clip. Asbestos on the other manus causes lung carcinoma. liver and kidney harm. Many of these elements have negatively impacted the proviso of effectual public wellness services ( Salami et al. 2003 ) .
Mining has been one of the economic activities in Nigeria. nevertheless. this has non been for the benefit of the agriculture and environment protections as it had been a wellness hazard to the community. When H2O eroding ( which is the outstanding agent of eroding in Nigeria ) sweeps across the excavation Fieldss much of the minerals are swept into the H2O organic structures. Some of the elements are toxic and a hazard to human wellness. In add-on. the gases released from the excavation countries are carried as dust through air current eroding and in bend presenting a wellness job to the Nigerians particularly the community life near the excavation countries. For illustration. sulfur dioxide causes harm of the respiratory system. In add-on. the sulfur compounds besides affect visibleness. decrease of sunshine. unpleasant odors. annoyance and smartness in the eyes. nose and pharynx which is a wellness concern to the community around the excavation countries ( Salami et al. 2003 ) .
Sourness in the dirt and H2O organic structures has been a public wellness to the Nigerian community. Soil eroding leads to the accretion of solid waste in H2O organic structures. This has become a serious environmental job confronting Nigeria. The effect of these solid wastes is pollution of H2O. land and air non burying to reference is risky to women’s wellness every bit good as their societal good being. With the increased urbanisation in the state every bit good as high population. the sum of solid waste being generated has greatly increased. At the minute. virtually all the major metropoliss in Nigeria are faced with the threat of solid waste direction. The wastes are in one manner or another swept into rivers and other H2O organic structures. Due to their day-to-day engagement with agriculture and house jobs. adult females are exposed to legion catching diseases such as enteric fever. dysentery. cholera. swerve ; malaria. xanthous febrility. and get worsing febrility that affect adult females are associated with improper disposal of wastes ( Oladapo et al. 2009 ) .
Soil eroding has drastically reduced land productiveness. particularly the southern parts of Nigeria. In add-on. dirt eroding has besides led to indispensable alimentary depletion as a signifier of land debasement. This has brought along terrible economic impact in Nigeria. Reduced land production has badly affected nutrient production in the state. The consequence of this is a deficit of nutrient in the communities. Reduced nutrient production in the community has increased the impact of drouth to the occupants. With decreased nutrient production. the community can non be able to prolong their people and in bend when the prohibitionist season comes along. the communities are mostly hit by drouth. Over the last 30 old ages. dirt eroding in Nigeria has rendered more that 32 % of cultivable land unproductive. this has in bend led to severe nutrient deficit every bit good as nutrient related diseases such as kwashiorkor among the kids in Nigerian agriculture communities ( Sotona & A ; Adesodun. 2014 ) .
Soil eroding on the other manus has contributed to deluging occurs throughout Nigeria in three chief signifiers which are urban. river and coastal implosion therapy. For illustration. urban deluging such as the Ogunpa catastrophe which claimed over 200 lives and damaged belongings deserving 1000000s of Naira in Ibadan. are common happenings. Deluging and accretion of waste merchandise has every bit good posed a public wellness concern to the Nigerians. particularly the communities populating along rivers and coastal lines. About 60 % of the dirt that is swept off by the eroding procedure ends up in rivers. lakes and watercourses. This makes waterways more prone to implosion therapy every bit good as taint from dirt. pesticides and fertilisers which are harmful to human wellness non merely in Nigeria but besides globally. Soil eroding is believed to hold terrible and inauspicious consequence on the developing states economic stableness. Nigeria is termed as a underdeveloped state and it has suffered economically as a consequence of dirt eroding. Large amounts of financess have been deployed in the battle against the threat and it’s particularly the impact to the country’s wellness attention system ( Ehigiator & A ; Anyata. 2011 ) .
The obstinate continuity of dirt eroding in Nigeria every bit good as its menace to public wellness has raised legion ethical inquiries recent times. Fring humanity from wellness threat caused by dirt eroding is a moral duty that weighs on the Nigerian authorities more to a great extent as the capablenesss and engineering progress continues to be experienced. The universe and Nigeria in peculiar. doubtless has the productive capacity to bring forth equal quality wellness attention and installations non to advert their ability to command or forestall dirt eroding and in bend eradicate wellness hazards to the people. In recent old ages. rapid engineering progresss have led to better environmental direction. nevertheless soil eroding direction or bar in Nigeria has non been to the full achieved and in bend impeding good public wellness ( Edosomwan. 2013 ) .
The value of heightening the well being of the Nigerians. today about all the states recognizes the demand to heighten the well being of its people. While charity necessary might be necessary to react to pressing issues in the community. it can non. nevertheless. supply for long-run solutions such as the instance of dirt eroding threat. Long term reversal of such instances can merely be achieved through supplying the Nigerians with accomplishments. capital. employment. instruction and chances. In add-on. for sustainable agribusiness and rural development to boom. every bit good as a valuable rural substructure must be in topographic point every bit good as policy that will advance effectual farming methods every bit good as dirt eroding bar steps ( Adedipe. 1992 ) .
Measures to cut down negative effects of dirt eroding in Nigeria
The Nigerian authorities together with World Health Organization has embarked on instruction. scheme for the husbandmans on how to better their agriculture patterns every bit good as how to forestall dirt eroding in their farms. Effective agriculture patterns within the communities are estimated to cut down the extent of dirt eroding by 40 % . This would in bend cut down the sum of harmful elements being swept through dirt eroding into H2O organic structures. Furthermore. husbandmans are encouraged to works trees to cut down the desertification procedure every bit good as apprehension the deforestation procedure. For illustration. the World Bank has financed the rehabilitation of land in Enugu. a part with monolithic gullies caused by eroding in order to forestall loss of life and belongings ( Adeniyi. 1986 ) .
The authorities has besides embarked on landscape gardening and edifice of butchs in order to cut down the job of implosion therapy. The issue of uncontrolled inundations from parts such as Osina and Akokwa has raised the concern of inundation control. Residents of the Urualla community. for illustration. had themselves committed towards happening a permanent solution to the job particularly their fiscal part to the cost of the technology design for the site and urged them to prolong the impulse. Through the apprehension of dirt eroding. the authorities has managed to somewhat command the threat of dirt eroding and particularly its negative consequence to the wellness sector. The battle against the malaria epidemic in African states has been a success which is one of diseases caused by deluging as a consequence of dirt eroding. Last. the authorities and NGOs have embarked on educating the community members on healthy life such as ways to avoid H2O borne diseases. Equally good as supplying equal medical attending when needed ( Ananda & A ; Herath. 2003 ) .
Nigeria is capable to dirty eroding. due to strip agrarian patterns. together with erodible dirts. When considered across all land-use types. it is clear that dirt debasement is perceived as more of a job in Agulu-Nanka ( Plate 1 ) . Obioma. Nsuka. and less of a job in Borno. Kaduna. Kano and Sokoto. This has in bend turned to be a monolithic public wellness threat to the community non merely in Nigeria but globally every bit good. It is clear that the procedure of dirt eroding has brought along complicated wellness jobs. The step has been implemented to cut down the threat of dirt eroding and in bend minimize the negative impact on public wellness.
Despite the dedicated collaborative attempts of both the concerned parties such as the Nigerian authorities. NGOs. giver bureaus provide an effectual and efficient wellness attention bringing in the county. facing jobs renders these attempts much less than desired. Some of the jobs include hapless agrarian patterns. hapless waste disposal. deforestation. which is believed to be a accelerator to dirty eroding. re-emergence of HIV/AIDS pandemic. hapless quality attention every bit good as irrational assignments of wellness workers has non done the sector any good. Lack of information on bar of dirt eroding every bit good as the weight of these jobs. is farther compounded by deficient budget allotment. deficiency of strategic program and fix for epidemics/pandemics.
Adedipe. N. O. ( 1992 ) “The African Environment: A changing and Scary Scenario”
Adeniyi E. O. ( 1986 ) “Environmental Management and Development in Nigeria” A paper presented at the proceedings of a National Conference on Development and the Environment. Rosprint Industrial Press Ltd.
African Development Foundation ( U. S. ) . ( 1994 ) . Participatory development: ADF. funded undertakings. 1993. Washington. DC ( 1400 Eye St. . NW. Washington 20005: The Foundation.
Agbenin. J. ( 2002 ) . The impact of long-run cultivation and direction history on the position and kineticss of Co in a savanna Alfisol in Nigeria. European Journal Of Soil Science. 53 ( 2 ) . 169-174. doi:10. 1046/j. 1365-2389. 2002. 00433. ten
Ananda. J. . & A ; Herath. G. ( 2003 ) . Soil eroding in developing states: a socio-economic assessment. Journal Of Environmental Management. 68 ( 4 ) . 343. doi:10. 1016/S0301-
Berkhout. E. D. . Schipper. R. A. . Van Keulen. H. H. . & A ; Coulibaly. O. O. ( 2011 ) . Heterogeneity in farmers’ production determinations and its impact on dirt food usage: Consequences and deductions from northern Nigeria. Agricultural Systems. 104 ( 1 ) . 63-74. doi:10. 1016/j. agsy. 2010. 09. 006
Beinart. W. ( 2008 ) . The rise of preservation in Nigeria: Settlers. farm animal. and the environment. 1770-1950. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cornell University. ( 2006. March 23 ) . Soil Erosion Threatens Environment and Human Health. Study Reports. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 26. 2014 from World Wide Web. sciencedaily. com/releases/2006/03/060322141021. htmEdosomwan. N. L. . Obazuaye. E. E. . & A ; Edosomwan. E. U. ( 2013 ) . Impacts Of Dam On Characteristics Of Tropical Rainforest Soils And Sediments In South Central Nigeria. Indian Journal Of Agricultural Research. 47 ( 1 ) . 73-77. 4797 ( 03 ) 00082-3
Ehigiator. O. A. . & A ; Anyata. B. U. ( 2011 ) . Effectss of land uncluttering techniques and cultivated land systems on overflow and dirt eroding in a tropical rain forest in Nigeria. Journal Of Environmental Management. 92 ( 11 ) . 2875-2880. doi:10. 1016/j. jenvman. 2011. 06. 015
Iwegbue. C. A. . Nwajei. G. E. . & A ; Eguavoen. O. I. ( 2012 ) . Impact of Land-Use Patterns on Chemical Properties of Trace Elements in Soils of Rural. Semi-Urban. and Urban Zones of the Niger Delta. Nigeria. Soil & A ; Sediment Contamination. 21 ( 1 ) . 19-30. doi:10. 1080/15320383. 2012. 636772
Oladapo. O. T. . Adetoro. O. O. . Fakeye. O. . Ekele. B. A. . Fawole. A. O. . Abasiattai. A. . & A ; … Dada. O. A. ( 2009 ) . National information system on near girl and maternal decease: shifting from maternal hazard to public wellness impact in Nigeria. Reproductive Health. 68-18.
Orisakwe. O. . Asomugha. R. . Afonne. O. . Anisi. C. N. . Obi. E. . & A ; Dioka. C. ( 2004 ) . Impact of Effluents from a Car Battery Manufacturing Plant in Nigeria on Water. Soil. and Food Qualities. Archivess Of Environmental Health. 59 ( 1 ) . 31-36.
Reasonably. J. N. ( 1995 ) . Regenerating agribusiness: Policies and pattern for sustainability and autonomy. Washington. D. C: Joseph Henry Press.
Salami. A. . Jimoh. M. A. . & A ; Muoghalu. J. I. ( 2003 ) . Impact Of Gold. Mining On Vegetation And Soil In Southwestern Nigeria. International Journal Of Environmental Studies. 60 ( 4 ) . 343-352.
Showers. K. B. ( 2005 ) . Imperial gullies: Soil eroding and preservation in Lesotho. Athens ( Ohio: Ohio University Press. Smil. V. ( 2001 ) . Feeding the universe: A challenge for the 21st century. Cambridge. Mass: MIT Pres
Sotona. T. . Salako. F. . & A ; Adesodun. J. ( 2014 ) . Soil physical belongingss of selected dirt series in relation to compression and eroding on farmers’ Fieldss at Abeokuta. southwesterly Nigeria. Archivess Of Agronomy & A ; Soil Science. 60 ( 6 ) . 841-857. doi:10. 1080/03650340. 2013. 844334
Vanlauwe. B. B. . Diels. J. J. . Sanginga. N. N. . & A ; Merckx. R. R. ( 2005 ) . Long-run incorporate dirt birthrate direction in South-western Nigeria: Crop public presentation and impact on the dirt birthrate position. Plant & A ; Soil. 273 ( 1/2 ) . 337-354. doi:10. 1007/s11104-005-0194-2