The Catalan
government indicated that 2,344,828 votes were cast overall, out of 5.4m
eligible voters. The Catalan government did not provide a final turnout
percentage figure. Turnout estimates published by media outlets range between
37.0%  and 41.6%. 80.8% of the cast votes supported the Yes-Yes
option, 10.1% the Yes-No, 4.5% the No option.

Low turnout and
one-sided results suggest that the poll may have been boycotted by Catalan
voters who oppose independence.

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Due to the low
turnout for the referendum, Catalan president Artur Mas said the vote was
“a lesson in democracy.” Spanish Prime Minister Mariano
Rajoy called the vote a “deep failure” because “two thirds
of Catalans did not participate” and he claimed it violated a ruling of
the Constitutional Court. (The main phrases of Rajoy, 2014)

On February 6, 2017,
the former Catalan president Artur Mas was convicted and barred from public
office by the Constitutional Court of Spain. (Esteban, 2017)

In September 2016, Puigdemont,
the President of Catalonia, told the parliament that a referendum for
independence would be held in the second half of September 2017, with or
without the consent of the Spanish institutions.  It was in June 2017 when
he announced that the referendum would take place on 1 October 2017. The
Spanish government, however, stated that the referendum will not take place
because it is illegal. (Bervick, 2016)

Before the referendum, police were
sent from the rest of Spain to suppress the vote and close polling
locations. Some election organizers were arrested, including Catalan
cabinet officials, while demonstrations by local institutions and street
protests grew larger.

The referendum took place on 1 October
2017, despite being suspended by the Constitutional Court, and despite the
action of Spanish police to prevent voting in some centres.


The referendum
question was “Do you want Catalonia to become an independent state in the
form of a republic?”, to which voters had to answer with Yes or No. (Catalan referendum 2017, 2017)

According to the
Catalan authorities, 2,044,038 votes were cast overall, out of 5.4m
eligible voters with a voter turnout of 43.03%. Around 92% of the supporters
supported for independence while the other 8% chose the ‘No’ option. The
Catalan government estimated that about 770,000 potential voters could not vote
due to raids by the Spanish police. (Catalan referendum 2017, 2017)

The Spanish police’s
attempts to stop the Catalan referendum eventually turned into violence. The
security forces met resistance from citizens who obstructed them in their way.
The police used force to try to reach the voting tables and even used batons in
some cases. As a consequence, several hundreds of people were reported injured.


In his first
interview since the referendum, Catalonia’s regional president stated he would
declare independence as soon as a final vote tally was determined, and would
subsequently act in a matter of days. Spain’s King
Felipe criticized the referendum for “eroding the harmony and
co-existence within Catalan society itself, managing, unfortunately, to divide
it”. (Mckirdy, 2017)

On 27th
October 2017, the Parliament of Catalonia unilaterally declared
independence from Spain. In response, the Spanish Prime
Minister Mariano Rajoy, with the approval of the Spanish senate fired
the Catalan President Carles Puigdemont and scheduled
fresh Catalan elections on 21 December 2017. Moreover, the Spanish Constitutional Court has recently annulled
Catalonia’s unilateral declaration of independence, which the court described
as “a serious attack on the rule of law”. (Catalan referendum 2017, 2017) (Catalonia
independence: Rajoy dissolves Catalan parliament, 2017)

is a distinct sociolinguistic cultural region that dates back to at least 900
years. They are part of a distinct, proud nation with its own language,
history, culture and flag, and that separate identity has survived Franco’s
brutal attempts to suppress the Catalan language in the decades after the
Spanish Civil War.

of independence argue that their language and culture is not sufficiently
respected by the Spanish central government, and they worry that, unless
something is done, their culture will be absorbed.


are forced to contribute € 17 billion of their hard earned taxes to
the Spanish government annually. They pay more in taxes every year than they
get back in spending and subsidies. Those demands have pushed Catalonia into
debt and left a wealthy country struggling to provide basic services for its
own people. The refusal of the Madrid government to grant Catalonia even the
fiscal economy enjoyed by the Basque Country shows that, according to this
argument, only through independence will Barcelona be able to take control of
its finances and its economic future.

is now a clear majority of Catalans who want independence – upto 57% in some
polls. It would be undemocratic not to let them exercise their right to
self-determination. The Catalan people have clearly rejected attempts by the
government in Madrid to roll back the autonomy which Catalonia has gained since
the death of Franco in 1975.

do not want to live in a centralized Spanish state under a monarchy for whom
they have little affection. The time has come for the Catalans to choose the
state they want to live in.

An Introduction to the Geography and Culture of Spain Essay

Mrs.. Jones id you know that Spain has the lowest age of consent for sexual activity? Spain is the third largest country in Europe. Spain was not originally just called Spain; it was called Kingdom of Spain. Spain originated in 16th century. The kingdom of Spain has a long history and the culture developed with the world over time. The Hispanic race also keeps family customs throughout the family, and passes down to future generation. In Spain people are allowed to have their choice of religion, but majority of the population Is Catholic.

Other religions practiced in Spain Include Islam, Judaism, Protestantism, and Hinduism, all of which have places where to conduct their rituals. In Spain’s history some other religions were coexisted Like Muslims, Jews, and Christians. Holy Week Is where many participate In wearing peaks, black hats as the sign of a penitent and walk barefoot, carrying a burden of some kind. The religious history is apparent throughout every inch of Spain even small towns. Spain’s culture and customs play a big role in attracting tourists. In Spain nuclear and extended family, usually, lives together in one house.

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Although culture plays a major role, the la siesta, and night life are a few of the culture traditions they have. Culture to Spain means The economy in Spain is very free. Spain’s economic freedom score is 68, making its economy the 46th freest in the 2013 index. Spain had declined in financial freedom, fiscal freedom, and monetary freedom. These branches are outweighing Improvements in the control of government spending and labor freedom. The economy has fallen behind several other European economies and solidified Its status as only “moderately free. ” Challenges are particularly significant

In fiscal freedom, government spending, and financial freedom. Politics In Spain Is also a big part to tell about. The political sides of Spain are broken up into branches including Executive & Legislative. Executive is the presidential if government nominated by monarch, subjected to approval by democratically elected Congress of Deputies. Legislative is a bicameral Cortes: a 350 seat Congress of Deputies (elected by the don’t system of proportional representation) and a Senate. Spain’s political parties include: Spanish Socialist Workers Party (SHOES), Popular Party (UP), and the

United Left (10) coalition. Key regional parties are the Convergence and Union (CIA) in Catalonia and the Basque Nationalist Party (VPN) in the Basque country. Although culture, customs, and economy are major facts, they all have to start somewhere. Spain’s Iberian Peninsula has been settled for millennia. Beginning In the 9th century BC, Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginian, and the Cells entered the Iberian Peninsula. The Romans followed In the second century BC and laid the ground work for Spain’s present language, religion, and laws. Even though the Visigoths arrived in the fifth seventh century AD.

In 711, the North African Moors sailed across the straits; and pushed the Visigoths up the peninsula to the Sanitarian Mountains. The Reconstitutes- efforts to drive the Moors away lasted until 1492. By 1512, the unification of present-day Spain was complete. During the 16th century, Spain became the most powerful nation in Europe, due to the immense wealth derived from its presence in the Americas. But a series of long, costly war and revolts, capped by the defeat of the English of the “Invincible Armada” in 1588, began decline of Spanish power in Europe. Spanish literature was traced all the way back to the Golden Age. They Justify “greatness”, as it can be applied to Spain’s literature during this period. Its poetry and drama are of exceptional quality and originality while in prose fiction Spanish writers are not only exceptional but also introduce fundamental innovations that led to the modern novel as we understand it. Fewer Spaniards may know, however, the culture significance of 1492. It was in that year that the first Spanish (Castling) Grammar book (in fact the first grammar of any modern European language) and the first Latin-Spanish dictionary were published.


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