It has been defined by the 2013 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey (FLEMMS) that Out of School Youth (OSY) are those people who are not attending any school and not younger than age 15 or older than age 24. This is in fact that OSY has been eminent in the Philippines as it has been stated in the article of Sunstar.ph (2017) in which it was reported in the 2016 Annual Poverty Indicators Survey (APIS) that the country has about 3.
8 million out-of-school children and youth (OSCY) which ages range 6 to 24 years old. It is very prevalent in different regions in the country as recorded by the Philippine Statistics Authority like ARMM which is the highest across regions that is compromised of 14.4 percent of the population. Six regions have also a proportion of out-of-school children and youth higher than the national figure at 10.6 percent. These regions are SOCCSKSARGEN, Davao, Central Luzon, Zamboanga Peninsula, Caraga and MIMAROPA ranging from 11.
2 to 12.3 percent. For this reason, the World Bank (2003) added that poverty is the prevailing reason for dropping out of school. With this reason, they tend to feel pressured and drop out to find for employment to sustain the needs of their family. However, The 2013 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey (FLEMMS) results showed that of the nearly “4 million out-of-school children and youth, 22.9 percent have been in early marriage. Also, a percentage of 19.2 percent were because of insufficient family income to send child to school while 19.
1 percent were because of lack of interest in attending school. For this reason, the government has implemented a program that will aim to reduce the number of OSY and will solely give education to these OSY. This program is called the Alternative Learning System (ALS). The ALS program was based from the 1987 constitution and was implemented by the Republic Act 9155 that stipulates its establishment to give education to the out of school youth, adult and children. Its mainly reason is to cover up those who fail to finish formal basic education due to main reasons as stated by FLEMMS. This aims to provide all Filipinos the chance to have access to complete basic education in a mode that fits their distinct situations and needs. The ALS has been divided in to two major programs which is the Basic Literacy Program (BLP) and Continuing Education Program – Accreditation and Equivalency (AandE).
BLP focuses on eradicating illiteracy among out-of-schools youth and adults by developing basic literacy skills of reading, writing and numeracy while the AandE Program is a program aimed at providing an alternative way of learning for out-of-school children, youth and adults who are basically literate but have not finished the 10 year basic education mandated by the Philippine Constitution. Through this program, school dropouts are given a chance outside the formal school system to finish elementary and high school education. In this study which particularly focuses on Barangay Sumilang in Pasig City, there is a growing interest when it comes to the effectivity and efficiency of fulfilling the purpose of ALS to the OSY. It has been reported that the ALS of Barangay Sumilang was removed due to small population of OSY in the barangay. In this regard, the recorded remaining OSY will be obliged to take their ALS in the Barangay Malinao, Pasig City.
However, it has been reported by the Barangay Secretary Irma Gomez that there were still OSY who are not attending the ALS and a total of 30 drug surrenderees who are out of school youth were recorded in 2017. For this reason, it signifies that ALS has not been effective in the OSY given with their failure of pursuing the program. There are some reports on of out of school youth and children getting involved in gang wars, riots and drug addiction. For instance, Cayabyab (2017) narrated a teen in Tondo who was slain due to a gang fight and was found out that he was an out of school youth. Another one is the statistics of child surrenderees from Duterte’s first two months in his Drug War of 2016.
From the 20,584 kids who were identified as users and pushers, 43.34% of it was recorded as out of school youth. (Lucero, 2016). This signifies that increasing rate of OSY needs attention because it worsens the lives of these out of school youth and they are exposed to bad vices instead of being in school. In this regard, Dallas (2013) strengthens this claim as he states that in a study by U .S.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, it revealed that out of school youth most likely in the age of 16-18 years old were more than twice as likely to be smokers than those who are studying. The study found out that more than 31 percent of students who finished secondary school were exposed to drugs, compared with about 18 percent of students who had finished high school. That is why the problem with the ALS in Barangay Sumilang needs to be resolved because these OSY are more diverted and exposed to drug use, crime or gang wars than continuing their education offered by the program. OSY tend not to attend in ALS programs according to a 2013 survey from the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) were because of lack of interest, family matters and employment. Atilano, Omanito, Desipeda, Domingo and Garbin (2016) pointed out in their study that lack of interest, being the number one reason, can be simply explained with William Glasser’s control theory of motivation.
The theory claims that the reason why students are lacking interest or encouragement is because of the school work given to them are irrelevant and impractical in their lives and basic human needs. Second is family matters, this includes family planning itself and the family’s financial standpoint. The last cause is employment, OSY do not see the need for further education once they are employed.
In effect, not all OSY who didn’t finish the ALS are employed. This was strengthened by Claudio (2014) that teenagers who fail to finish high school level are those who are having difficulties in being employed. Another one effect of it is that OSY become exposed to bad vices. Cabanag (2012) stated that in the age of early twenties, these are years where teens are of trouble with crime, drug or alcohol abuse, and unwed childbearing in which he also stated that most incidence of violent crime takes place between the ages of 17 and 24. The researchers observed clearly is the dropping out of OSY in ALS programs. The researchers know however is the reasons of the dropouts which are the lack of interest of the OSY due to its uninteresting factors and how it is impractical for their basic social needs. Another reason is because of their want for employment as soon as possible because their priority is to earn income to support their family matters or even themselves.
However, the researchers believe tha even though OSY try stop in attending ALS for the reason of getting employed, some fail to get employed as it has been stated by Claudio (2014) that teenagers who fail to finish high school level are those who are having difficulties in being employed. The researchers believe that some OSY are just not that aware of the program the Dep Ed offers that includes skills training for them to acquire jobs as they finish the ALS. That is why the Dep Ed has established a program called Abot-Alam that aims to map OSY for them to give opportunities in education and skills. It has been stated by the Department of Education that it is their responsibility to protect and promote an equal, equitable, culture-based and complete basic education for the Filipinos. With that, the Department of Education came up with a program called Abot-Alam. Abot-Alam is aimed at mapping out-of-school youth and placing them with appropriate government, private-sector, or civil-society programs that will help them in providing opportunities for education, employment and entrepreneurship. In line with this program, it includes the DepEd’s Alternative Learning System for those who prefer to finish their basic education and scholarships for those who want to pursue higher education.
Employment opportunities are provided through programs for skills training by agencies like TESDA (Technical Education and Skills Development Authority). While entrepreneurship programs are provided by the Department of Trade and Industry and private groups such as GO Negosyo and microfinance institutions. It was reported by Deriquito (2015) that as of the end of December 2014, a number of more than 1.9 million of OSY was mapped in the Abot-Alam database. This in fact that 400,000 of them have been enrolled under various programs in education, employment and entrepreneurship.
However, DepEd stated that it is still a long way to go to attain its vision of “Zero OSY Philippines.”. If these programs of the government particularly the ALS program will continuously not be attended and pursued by OSY, instances are the rate of OSY will increase and will continue to be exposed in bad vices such as drugs, liquor and crime. Moreover, as the rate increases, Education Assistant Secretary for Programs and Projects, Lorna Dino said in the article of Amoroso and Bajo (2014) that it will consequently result in illiteracy, poor learning skills, less opportunity to employment or acquire higher education and in becoming entrepreneurs. If this will not be solved through time, they may just become an additional burden to our society. Cabanag (2012).
A considerable amount of literature has been published on various facets of Out of School Youth such as different programs and its effectivity for the Out of School Youth. Numerous studies have focused on the programs and its effectivity to the Out Of School Youth in the Philippines. It has been claimed by the Department of Education (DepEd) that since they started this certain programs that focus on out of school youths, numbers have gone down. Such programs have been anchored from the Alternative Learning System of DepEd. These programs are Accreditation and Equivalency (AandE) Program, Basic Literacy Program (BLP), Arabic Language and Islamic Values Education in Alternative Learning System (ALIVE in ALS), and etc. This claim has been strengthened by Apao et al (n.
d) in his study where he stated that the Alternative Learning System was effective in developing the fundamental abilities of the out of school youth. The program enhanced the nature of living on the respondents as they proceed in knowing the significance of oneself. It demonstrated that students still learn the long lasting capabilities even outside the formal educational system. The alternative learning system became a way to enhance their quality of living.
With this, Baywong , et al. (2011) found out in their study that OSY believe that their education promotes the equality in life. Most of them reveal that they don’t usually think of regretting being part of the ALS program. In this way, the Alternative Learning System AandE program was effective in promoting life skills of the recipients. The program improved the quality of living of the OSY as they strive their pursuit for their significance in life. It proved that students still learn and acquire the life-long competencies even outside the walls of the formal school system. In which it has also been stated that the alternative learning system became a way for those who wanted to improve their lives and eradicate poverty.
(Cañete, 2016) stated that in their study about the program ALIVE (Arabic Language and Islamic Values Education) that ensures education on the muslims in mindanao that the Alternative Learning System (ALS) serves as a way to solve the education needs of OSY. With ALS, their literacy and skills in entrepreneurship can be acquired in order for them to be competitive in the job market and learn skills in engaging in the trading business and in other entrepreneurial matters. Corcega, and Alicarte (2014) added that the Alternative Learning Center that is situated in the Lakeside District San Pablo Central School has been efficient to the guidelines set by the Department of Education in the implementation of ALS centers. Starting from the process of admission, to the methods and instructions, down to the facilities and assessment, the ALS center have been aligned with the national standards. Aside from the ALS, Santiago (2017) reported another program that has been provided by the governmen which is called the Special Program for the Employment of Students (SPES), which gives short-term job opportunities to help them in pursuing their education.
The Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) reported that the they have allocated almost P798 million for the employment of 100,000 to 120,000 students and out-of-school youth. In this regard, these opportunities were usually hired as food service crews, customer touch points, office clerks, gasoline attendants, cashiers, sales ladies, promodizers, etc. However some studies have reported that there is a need of enhancement programs as a tool to improve the OSY of their performance and to attend the ALS. In the study of Pogoy, Dapat, and Moroscallo (2015), it has been clarified that proficiency through instructional mediation program can turn into an intense movitvation for the forty-seven (47) out of school adolescents in building their feeling of self – idea and checked on how the CIIP program can supplement formal school by giving new learning chances to these out-of-school youth to influence them to finish the Alternative and Equivalency test and some way or another earn a secondary school authentication without going to standard formal class from in this way which intended for the individuals who have begun work sooner than 10 years of age and had encountered trouble proceeding with the normal school. This was strengthened by Atilano, Omanito, Desipeda, Domingo and Garbin (2016) that there is a need in providing enhancement programs to develop and provide a guidance program for the ALS-AandE Program. It was also pointed out by Field (2015) that enhancement programs serves as a tool for community based youth for opportunities on education, employment.
This is where he showed in his study that after implementing enhancement programs, majority of the out-of-school youths became enrolled in ALS institutions in Brgy. BayBayin and Brgy. Maahas.
In this light, it has been identified in the study of Mercado (2015) of ALS in Tanauan Batangas that there are still things need to be improved in the implementation of the ALS. A considerable amount of research has been about various facets of Out of School Youth focusing on different programs and the use of enhancement programs. However, little research has seen on the the use of sports and fitness program as an alternative program for the Out Of School Youth. It is of interest, therefore to know what the researchers can do to in enhancement of the implementation of Alternative Learning System in Barangay Sumilang.
The researchers aim to know how is a sports and fitness program more effective than other enhancement programs? In this way, the researchers will use sports and fitness program to improve the implementation of the program of the government which is the ALS program. This will also examine the effectivity and problems in the implementation of the ALS program. The objectives of this research is to incorporate sports and fitness as an alternative program for the Out of School Youth of Barangay Sumilang. In this way, we will be able divert these out of school youth from bad vices into pursuing their goals and enhance their productivity.
This program will also become a way to serve as an The study aims to prove that there is still a need in improving and using enhance ment programs in implementing the alternative learning system in the Philippines . The researchers will focus on the out of school youth in Barangay Sumilang in Pasig City. A sports and fitness program event will be held in the first week of February and a guide booklet will be given to the Barangay. After the said event, the researchers will be interacting with the OSY and at the same time will conduct a survey to the OSY to check on what they have learned on the program.