Superbugs and Antibiotics

In thisessay, I will be talking about the bacteria’s impact on the body, how they canlead to the formation of diseases. The good and bad bacteria, how the goodbacteria are useful to our body and the effects of bad bacteria in our body.The dissimilar ways different antibiotics destroy bacteria in and on our bodyto prevent diseases and death. How the misuse of antibiotics can cause thegrowth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria increasing mortality rate, the risk ofgetting a disease and the risk of making the infection worst.

The suggestionsof using antibiotics to treat disease and the solution that science has come upwith to reduce the development of superbugs.Bacteriaare small, unicellular, living organisms (microorganisms), which can be seen bya microscope as thy are invisible to the human eye. (Team, The BioCote. “What Are Bacteria?” BioCote,BioCote, 10 May 2016, www.biocote.

com/blog/what-are-bacteria/.) Bacteria, also called prokaryotes, have a nucleoid which isn’t enclosedby a membrane, this means that it does not have a nucleus or any other membranebound organelles. (Vidyasagar, Aparna.

“What Are Bacteria?” LiveScience, Purch, 23 July 2015, www.livescience.com/51641-bacteria.html.

) Bacteria adjust to be relevant to the different environments that theyencounter, they contain some common parts. Bacteria have ribosomes which createprotein to heal damage, they also have a cell wall to give the cell stabilityand firmness. (Szymanski, Jennifer.“What Is Bacteria? – Definition & Types.

” Study.com, Study.com,study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-bacteria-definition-types-quiz.html.) Bacteriacan be found anywhere in the atmosphere, they are in the air we breathe, onground and water.

They can be found in intense atmospheres where temperature iseither very hot or very cold. Bacteria located in these strong environments arecalled extremophiles. (“WhatAre Bacteria?” Mold Bacteria Facts, 28 Apr. 2013, www.moldbacteriafacts.com/what-are-bacteria/.) Bacteria can be motile, being movable because of their form of arrangement.

Bacteria can also be immotile or nonmotile, this means that they can’t move. Totravel, bacteria have a long rear feature attached to their cell,filament-like, called a flagellum. A flagellum is arranged with flagellinprotein which create extensive chains, giving the flagellum a curlingstructure. The flagellum has a grapple near the cell membrane, this grappleconnects the flagellum to the cell at the motor. The motor is a sequence ofprotein rings that cover the cell membrane and hold the flagellum to the cellsupplying motion to the cell. (Hartsock,Angela. “Flagellum Bacterial Cell: Function & Definition.

” Study.com,Study.com,study.com/academy/lesson/flagellum-bacterial-cell-function-definition-quiz.html.)Some bacteria provide themselves with food from photosynthesis in whichtheir energy source is daylight.

Other bacteria consume sources of nourishmentfrom their atmosphere. (Team, TheBioCote. “What Are Bacteria?” BioCote, BioCote, 10 May 2016, www.biocote.com/blog/what-are-bacteria/.) They also eat decomposing matter and wasteproducts. Bacteria active in our mouth and digestive systems absorb the food weeat. (Insight Multimedia.

“Bacteria.” Explore Your Body – Microbe Magic, 7 Aug. 2007,microbemagic.ucc.ie/inside_guts/more_info/bacteria.html.

) Other bacteria have adjusted to locate energy onecological resources like iron and sulphur. (Team, The BioCote. “What Are Bacteria?” BioCote,BioCote, 10 May 2016, www.biocote.com/blog/what-are-bacteria/.)We alsohave the good and bad bacteria, some have good effects on our body and we needthem to overthrow the bad bacterium that are trying to develop and creatediseases. Probiotics are good bacteria creating lactic acid microorganisms,that are alike to bacteria inhabiting in the human body. They are essentialbacteria connected with a variety of advantages to health, used in medicalnourishment and medicine.

(Russo,Juniper. “List of Good Bacteria.” LIVESTRONG.COM, Leaf Group, 14Aug.

2017, www.livestrong.com/article/26093-list-good-bacteria/.) For example: Lactobacillus acidophilus is a type of bacteria in theLactobacillus compartment. Lactobacillus acidophilus is in the intestine andaids in the digestion of food, it creates lactic acid and hydrogen peroxidemaking damaging circumstances for the development of injurious bacteria.

(DiPardo, Robert. “List of Good Bacteria.” HealthyEating | SF Gate, healthyeating.sfgate.

com/list-good-bacteria-7771.html.) The bad andharmful bacteria in the human body are the source that can cause cancer,diabetes, other diseases, death, etc. This happens when bad bacteria have spaceto develop themselves, making the atmosphere favourable for the formation of adisease. Some bacteria don’t severely affect your body, if they have time todevelop, they can cause the creation of a disease. (“Bacteria: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.” NationalCenter for Health Research, 28 Mar. 2017, www.

center4research.org/bacteria-good-bad-ugly/.) For example: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a species of bacteria thatcan be expanded through coughing, sneezing, etc. (“Travelers’ Health.” Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 5 Aug.2014,wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/diseases/pneumococcal-disease-streptococcus-pneumoniae.

) This bacterium can possibly causepneumonia, a disease where the airspaces in the lungs get inflamed. (Stöppler, Melissa Conrad, and Charles Patrick Davis.“Pneumonia Types, Symptoms, Vaccine, Treatment & Causes.” MedicineNet,www.medicinenet.com/pneumonia_facts/article.htm.

) Therefore, we need good bacteria to restrain the bad bacteria. An elementthat restricts the development and reproduction of bacteria or destroys it isknown as an antibiotic as it is prohibiting bacteria from generating disease tothe human body. Antibiotics are drugs/medicines, a kind of antimicrobialspecifically used to abolish bacteria. (Society, Microbiology. “What Are Antibiotics and HowDo They Work?” Microbiology Society, microbiologysociety.

org/education-outreach/antibiotics-unearthed/antibiotics-and-antibiotic-resistance/what-are-antibiotics-and-how-do-they-work.html.) Antibiotics attack bacteria indifferent ways, one way they attack is a bactericidal antibiotic which hinderswith the composition of the cell wall or the components in the cell. (Nordqvist, Christian.

“Antibiotics: All You Need ToKnow.” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 2 Jan. 2017,www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10278.php.

) The cell wall is built from amino acid andsugar chains connected with each other. (“How Do Antibiotics Work?” Science Focus,8 Apr. 2010, www.

sciencefocus.com/qa/how-do-antibiotics-kill-bacteria.) Antibiotics prohibit bacteria frommaking a whole molecule called peptidoglycan located in the cell wall, thismolecule aids the cell wall by giving firmness, allowing the bacteria to livein the human body. (Castro, Joseph.

“How DoAntibiotics Work?” LiveScience, Purch, 19 Mar. 2014, www.livescience.com/44201-how-do-antibiotics-work.html.) Another way antibiotics work is bybeing bacteriostatic which prevents bacteria from reproducing. (Nordqvist, Christian. “Antibiotics: All You Need ToKnow.

” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 2 Jan. 2017,www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10278.

php) The ribosome, the cell arrangement thatproduces protein from the DNA. Antibiotic fasten to the ribosome, blocking it,and preventing the production of protein. Ultimately, the bacterium stopsworking. (“How Do AntibioticsWork?” Science Focus, 8 Apr. 2010,www.sciencefocus.com/qa/how-do-antibiotics-kill-bacteria.)Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are bacteriathat are not being attacked by antibiotics, they have adjusted to theantibiotics.

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria can live and reproduce during theexistence of an antibiotic. (Departmentof Health & Human Services. “Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria.” BetterHealth Channel, Department of Health & Human Services, 28 Feb.

2015, www.betterhealth.vic.

gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/antibiotic-resistant-bacteria.) Some bacteria arealready resistant to certain types of antibiotics, another cause is the misuse of antibiotics (too much use) which can advance the growth ofantibiotic-resistant bacteria. The use of antibiotics kills bacteria,antibiotic-resistant bacteria develop and duplicate since the antibiotics areunable to kill the bacterium . The constant use of antibiotics can upsurge thequantity of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Antibiotics are not useful againstinfections like colds, flus, ear infections, etc. The extensive usage ofantibiotics for these illnesses is how the misuse of antibiotics can create theexpansion of antibiotic resistance. (“AntibioticPrescribing and Use in Doctor’s Offices.” Centers for Disease Controland Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 25 Sept. 2017,www.cdc.

gov/antibiotic-use/community/about/antibiotic-resistance-faqs.html.)Bacteria can already be resistant to certain types of antibiotic, but,bacteria can also evolve into antibiotic-resistant bacteria: either by agenetic change, by obtaining resistance from an alternative bacterium,destroying the antibiotic, etc. Genetic changes allow the bacteria tocreate enzymes that make antibiotics ineffective. Some mutations remove theaimed cell that the antibiotic strikes at.

Others block the entrance that letsthe antibiotic in the cell. Mutations can also create propelling devices, theysend the antibiotic outside, preventing it from attacking its aim. Bacteria can also obtain antibiotic-resistance fromother bacterium, they go through a development known as conjugation. Bacteriacan transfer genetic matter from one bacterium to another, viruses are alsoused to transfer resistance characteristics amongst bacteria. The resistancecharacteristics from one bacterium are enclosed into the main section of thevirus. The virus inserts these resistance qualities into bacteria that itdamages. (“GeneralBackground: About Antibiotic Resistance.” APUA,emerald.

tufts.edu/med/apua/about_issue/about_antibioticres.shtml.) Antibiotic-resistant bacteria develop, antibioticsattack non-resistant bacteria since they are unable to attack theantibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria live andduplicate, the number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria upsurges. (“GCSEBitesize: Antibiotic Resistance.” BBC, BBC,www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa/keepinghealthy/defendingagainstinfectionrev7.

shtml.)If we lack antibiotics, transmittable diseases have harmful effects onindividuals and economies. For example, an analysis assessed past patterns in‘Staphylococcus aureus’ contamination rate, economic consequences of poorhealth and death in hospitals. It was concluded that in 2003, the economicconsequences of ‘Staphylococcus aureus’ were predicted to be $14.5 billion forall inpatient hospitalizations and $12.3 billion for surgical patienthospitalizations. Therefore, the stoppage of these contaminations shouldproduct in equivalent cost savings.

In an issued cost efficiency study that wasdirected between children aged 6 months to 12 years realised in primary careoffices, repetitive treatment with amoxicillin was presented to be costefficient. The equivalent study proves that when linked with overdueprescription, 7 to 10 days of amoxicillin caused substantial cost savings. Inrelations to the genuine cost that antibiotics offer, evidence from cost haspresented that furthermost antibiotics maintain money and develop efficiency ofsimultaneous medicinal procedures. (“The Value of Antibiotics in Treating InfectiousDiseases.” Value of Medicines, pp. 1–3.) People have recommended that the price ofantibiotics needs to be increased like the cost of new cancer drugs so thatpeople can use them correctly.

(Gallagher, James. “Analysis:Antibiotic Apocalypse.” BBC News, BBC, 19 Nov. 2015, www.

bbc.com/news/health-21702647.) Scientists enhanced the intensity of an antibiotic called vancomycinused to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Vancomycin is recognised fromits ability to fight against strong infections when other antibiotics wereunsuccessful at doing so. Researchers re-generated the antibiotic to functionin three different customs on bacteria, making it harder for bacteria to becomeresistant to the antibiotic. Study shows that the new form of vancomycin is a“thousand times” tougher than the old antibiotic.

The teams’ former studiespresented that two alterations to vancomycin could be added, making it muchmore effective and decrease the number of antibiotics necessary to fight thebacteria and have the equivalent reaction. This change provides the antibiotic with anupsurge in ability, this way, doctors use a decreased amount of this antibioticto attack the bacteria. The new form of vancomycin was experimented onEnterococci bacteria and it destroyed vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (adangerous antibiotic-resistant bacteria) and Enterococci bacteria. Bacteria can’t function at the same time to figure outa solution around three separate devices of movement. If the bacteria couldfigure out a way of getting around one of the devices, it would be destroyed bythe other 2 mechanisms. (Forster,Katie. “Scientists Modify Antibiotic to Create New Super-Strength Drug to FightDeadly Superbugs.” The Independent, Independent Digital News andMedia, 31 May 2017, www.

independent.co.uk/news/health/superbugs-kill-cure-modify-antibiotics-create-super-strength-drug-scientists-vancomycin-a7765101.html.

) Toconclude, bacteria are spreading around and becoming resistance to many typesof antibiotics. We know that these bacteria are either already resistant toantibiotics or they have become antibiotic resistant from the misuse/overuse ofantibiotics. We can prevent these antibiotic-resistant bacteria from developingand duplicating ourselves, using antibiotics only if they were prescribed bythe doctor and use them as told. People should also avoid using them when theyhave colds, flus, coughing, etc. as antibiotics are used to treat disease. Theeconomic burden caused by the bacteria spreading and causing infections,stopping antibiotic-resistance bacteria from duplicating will result in costsavings.

To the growing problem of antibiotic-resistance, scientists havedeveloped vancomycin to kill antibiotic-resistance bacteria and reduce itsgrowth.  Bibliography: Team, The BioCote.“What Are Bacteria?” BioCote, BioCote, 10 May 2016, www.biocote.com/blog/what-are-bacteria/.

Vidyasagar, Aparna.“What Are Bacteria?” LiveScience, Purch, 23 July 2015, www.livescience.com/51641-bacteria.html.

Szymanski, Jennifer.“What Is Bacteria? – Definition & Types.” Study.com, Study.

com,study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-bacteria-definition-types-quiz.html.“What Are Bacteria?” Mold Bacteria Facts, 28 Apr. 2013, www.moldbacteriafacts.com/what-are-bacteria/.Hartsock, Angela.

“Flagellum Bacterial Cell: Function & Definition.” Study.com,Study.com, study.com/academy/lesson/flagellum-bacterial-cell-function-definition-quiz.html.

Insight Multimedia.“Bacteria.” Explore Your Body – Microbe Magic, 7 Aug. 2007,microbemagic.

ucc.ie/inside_guts/more_info/bacteria.html.Russo, Juniper.

“Listof Good Bacteria.” LIVESTRONG.COM, Leaf Group, 14 Aug. 2017, www.livestrong.

com/article/26093-list-good-bacteria/.DiPardo, Robert. “Listof Good Bacteria.” Healthy Eating | SF Gate,healthyeating.sfgate.

com/list-good-bacteria-7771.html.“Bacteria: the Good,the Bad, and the Ugly.” National Center for Health Research, 28Mar. 2017, www.

center4research.org/bacteria-good-bad-ugly/.“Travelers’Health.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers forDisease Control and Prevention, 5 Aug.

2014,wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/diseases/pneumococcal-disease-streptococcus-pneumoniae.Stöppler, MelissaConrad, and Charles Patrick Davis. “Pneumonia Types, Symptoms, Vaccine,Treatment & Causes.” MedicineNet, www.medicinenet.com/pneumonia_facts/article.

htm.Society, Microbiology.“What Are Antibiotics and How Do They Work?” Microbiology Society, microbiologysociety.org/education-outreach/antibiotics-unearthed/antibiotics-and-antibiotic-resistance/what-are-antibiotics-and-how-do-they-work.html.

Nordqvist, Christian.“Antibiotics: All You Need To Know.” Medical News Today,MediLexicon International, 2 Jan. 2017, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10278.

php.“How Do AntibioticsWork?” Science Focus, 8 Apr. 2010, www.sciencefocus.com/qa/how-do-antibiotics-kill-bacteria.Castro, Joseph. “How DoAntibiotics Work?” LiveScience, Purch, 19 Mar.

2014, www.livescience.com/44201-how-do-antibiotics-work.html.

Department of Health & Human Services. “AntibioticResistant Bacteria.” Better Health Channel, Department of Health& Human Services, 28 Feb. 2015, www.

betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/antibiotic-resistant-bacteria.“Antibiotic Prescribing and Use in Doctor’sOffices.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers forDisease Control and Prevention, 25 Sept.

2017, www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/community/about/antibiotic-resistance-faqs.html.“General Background: About Antibiotic Resistance.

” APUA,emerald.tufts.edu/med/apua/about_issue/about_antibioticres.shtml.“GCSE Bitesize: Antibiotic Resistance.

” BBC,BBC,www.bbc.co.

uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa/keepinghealthy/defendingagainstinfectionrev7.shtml.“TheValue of Antibiotics in Treating Infectious Diseases.

” Value ofMedicines, pp. 1–3.Gallagher, James. “Analysis: AntibioticApocalypse.

” BBC News, BBC, 19 Nov. 2015, www.bbc.com/news/health-21702647.

Forster, Katie. “Scientists Modify Antibiotic toCreate New Super-Strength Drug to Fight Deadly Superbugs.” TheIndependent, Independent Digital News and Media, 31 May 2017, www.independent.co.uk/news/health/superbugs-kill-cure-modify-antibiotics-create-super-strength-drug-scientists-vancomycin-a7765101.html.

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