Temperament

Participants            For my research study, I will begathering participants from two courses offered at Southern New HampshireUniversity. All the participants are enrolled in psy 510 and psy 520 graduatestudy courses.

Participants will range from ages 22-60+. For my specificresearch study, I will need 7-10 participants to partake in this study. Theseparticipants are going to be recruited through random sampling online, then askto complete an online survey on temperament. Materials            The only material that will be usedfor this study is an online tool that Southern New Hampshire University offers theirgraduate students called Qualtrics. This tool helps the graduate studentsrecruit other graduate students to complete their survey. Procedure            The first thing that the participants aregoing to be asked to do is to read over the introduction of our survey. Theintroduction that the participants read is important because based on what youwrite in your introduction; it can captivate or bore the participants in nottaking the survey. Once the participants decide if this is a study they want topartake in, they will then start a short version of the Adult TemperamentQuestionnaire.

The Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ) is a self-reportquestionnaire that focuses on four scales: negative affect,extraversion/surgency, effortful control and orienting sensitivity (Evans andRothbart, 2007). Participants will be asked basic questions about theirpersonality, values and beliefs. Each scale will then have 4-5 items and willhave a similar format as a Likert scale. Demographics            On top of the 20-25 questions that theparticipants are going to be asked to answer, they will also answer a fewquestions about their demographics. The survey will ask questions about theirage, gender, nationality, ethnicity and where they live. All these questionswill be a crucial part in my study because we will then group similarparticipants based on their ethnicity or where they live to determine if thereare cross-cultural differences in temperament.Adult Temperament Scale            A survey will then be administered todetermine how well the items described them on a 5 item Likert scale: 1-extremely untrue, 2- slightly true, 3-neither true or false, 4-slightly true,5-emtremely true. This shorter survey will measure and target multiple aspectssimilarly to the adult temperament questionnaire.

Participants will be askedcertain questions and each question will target one of the four scales:negative effect, extraversion/surgency, effortful control and orientingsensitivity. The questions would not be labeled as to which scale it willspecifically focus on. This will help to accurately see how the participantsrate themselves truthfully on each given scale.Negative Affect            Throughout the survey, participantswill be asked questions that they must think relates to themselves in any way. Thissurvey will have five questions. Berdan, Keane & Calkins (2008) use foursubscales to measure temperament: fear, sadness, discomfort and frustration.These four subscales will be used to narrow temperament into four categories.  This will be measured using a five pointLikert scale.

This is an important survey because negative affect is “thought tobe a marker of emotional dysregulation” (Berdan et al., 2008).Extraversion/Surgency            This survey will have five questionsspecifically focusing on three subscales: sociability, high intensity pleasureand positive affect (Berdan et al., 2008).

. This will also be measured using afive point Likert scale. Berdan et al., (2008) belived thatextraversion/surgency is a risk factor for the development of externalizingproblems, including aggression and hyperactivity. Effortful Control            Effortful control will also bemeasured using a five point Likert scale. This scale will focus on threesubscales: attentional control, inhibitory control and activation control (Berdanet al., 2008).Orienting Sensitivity            This survey will be administered in fivequestions using a five point Likert scale.

This scale will focus on threesubscales: neutral perceptual sensitivity, affective perceptual sensitivity andassociate sensitivity (Berdan et al., 2008). This scale will measure the participant’ssensitivity to certain aspects of their life. Ethics            Before administering the survey tothe participants, I will have them read and sign a consent waiver. This is veryimportant because it will avoid any ethical issues that may arise throughout orduring the study. Ethics play a huge part when conducting research because ofits severity of following basic APA guidelines. One of the biggest concernswith this research study is the low amount of participants who will be taking thesurvey. Since I will be using 7-10 participants, the results will not be assignificant enough if we had a bigger participant pool.

Data Analysis            After I gather the data collection fromthe participants, it will be plugged into the system called SPSS. IMB SPSS is asystem software that will allow anyone to put in data for statistical analysis.I will then use basic descriptive statistics to find out the means, standard deviation,averages, etc.  I will then use a comparemeans function to compare the different type of results given by each participant.A graph will be useful to show you a change in temperament based on one’scultural background/upbringing. I will then use the Pearson’s r correlation todetermine if there were any relationships between temperament and the differentcultures listed by the participants. The overall survey will focus on the fourscales of temperament: negative affect, extraversion/surgency, effortfulcontrol and orienting sensitivity.Results            The results for my research study willanticipate a high significance.

The results will hopefully show that there arecross-cultural differences in temperament. Although the anticipated resultswill be information collected by adults, this will show if there aredifferences in temperament with each individual as well as culturaldifferences. The results will also be carefully described for people tounderstand in order to avoid any ethical issues that can arise like misleadingresults. Alimitation to my study would be the overall sample size of my participant pool.In any given study, the best studies are the ones that recruit a lot of people.The bigger your sample size, the more accurate your results can be.

The otherlimitation is only being able to use students from Southern New HampshireUniversity. By having this as a requirement our distribution will not benormalized therefore making it harder to generalize for a larger group ofpopulation. Another limitation can be the demographic differences between thesamples.

Age and ethnicity will play a big role in this study and is the reasonwhy we want see a wide range of differences between different cultures. 

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