Introduction.The United States faced several challenges that had varied impacts on the national security and at the international level, but the crisis of terrorism was and still is the major dilemma that beset the United States at all. That is because Its contents included all kinds of crises related to human rights and the crisis of relations between the United States and the rising competing powers. However, the war on terrorism has made the united states to get involved in all aspects of human rights like the restrictions on civil liberties and the simplest example of this is what is happening in prison without trials such as what occurs in Guanta´namo, on the other hand some of the rising powers get involved in supporting terrorism activities as a part of the competition with the United States .
In response to this type of crisis that there is no agreement even on its concept which is traded in all media and various individual categories and official countries, I will address in these few pages this subject talking about the concept in terms of the differences and divergent views around , highlighting the importance and the sensitivity of this subject to the U.S. National Security financial issues and international commerce .Likewise, I will discuss the types and causes of terrorism trying to reach the most important implications of this case and its development on both international and domestic levels. Thus, I will try to review the liberalism and realism perspectives regarding this phenomenon trying to link the reasons to its causes in the practice of successive American Governments toward the crimes that involve terrorism. As well as emphasizing how effectively the instruments of power: Diplomacy, Intelligence, Military, and Economy (DIME) were applied to deal with such phenomenon. Concluding my recitative with a statement that answer the question why Terrorism is the most security challenge to the united states ?Defining TerrorismA very large amount of terrorism definitions have been made by deferent organizations in the world. But the debate on the meaning of terrorism increased after 9/11 where the attack on the Twin Tower and the Pentagon took place by a group which is well known to most people nowadays as Al Qaeda.
Therefore, statements were issued by the management and the concerned officials in the United States to declare a war on terrorism, at that point the need for a definition to terrorism appeared, then academics and specialists in this science were raced to find a definition to this phenomenon. And it is worth mentioning here that so far there is no uniform concept of terrorism has been agreed to inside the United States itself With all its institutions or in the international level . However, the definition of terrorism in oxford dictionary now is: ” the use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims” .So it doesn’t give a clear and explicit meaning to the concept, however it ignored by whom this use of violence has to be carried out, by individuals, groups or countries.
Also a lot of attempts have addressed Terrorism were carried out by deferent organizations in the world trying to define the exact concept through the view and perspectives of their own stand points. And due to the huge amount and diversity of these definitions I will take one example from the United States itself which is the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) definition for Terrorism, and the other definition for the United Nation. Thus, the FBI definition is: “International terrorism means activities with the following three characteristics: •Involve violent acts or acts dangerous to human life that violate federal or state law; •Appear to be intended (i) to intimidate or coerce a civilian population; (ii) to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; or (iii) to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping; and •Occur primarily outside the territorial jurisdiction of the U.S., or transcend national boundaries in terms of the means by which they are accomplished, the persons they appear intended to intimidate or coerce, or the locale in which their perpetrators operate or seek asylum” .
And the UN definition of Terrorism is: ” The UN has no internationally-agreed definition of terrorism” ! From the previous data it is clear to say that the concept of terrorism is still vague, as all world countries do not agree on a unified terror meaning, and every effort has failed to formulate this concept because the reality of terrorism from the standpoint of the opposite view is a war for freedom, and so on . Terrorism TypesTypes of terrorism differ from each other in accordance with the motive that makes the terrorist acts. We find that there are states terrorism which involved states to carry out violence either against individuals or other states and there are many types of this terrorism observed in the past ages and in the current days also, for example like what Germany during Hitler’s presidency, Iran, Libya and Israel adopted in the world during the last few decades of this century. Also we find groups are fighting for religious or ethnic reasons, like the Jews War against Palestinians in the Promised Holy Land which Jews claim that Jerusalem is their Promised Land, and also Al-Qaeda group led by Osama bin Laden against the United States and the European countries. However, we find another group practice terrorism to achieve political ambitions, however there are other types of terrorist groups the reasons for its terrorism is to force states not to take any action to curb drug trafficking, and other groups practice terrorism due to environmental reasons.
also there are some types of terrorism that take technology and telecommunications as a weapon of sabotage and terrorism, like using the information technology to disable networks of power systems or attacking housing financial information systems or any such examples . The threat of terrorism on the United States” As President, I have often said that I have no greater responsibility than protecting the American people. Though there are many potential threats to our national security, it is the terrorist threat from Al Qaida that has loomed largest in the decade since September, 11 2001″ . To support the previous above words of U.S. President Barack Obama in the national strategy for counterterrorism, Larry Mefford, the Assistant Director of the Counterterrorism Division in the FBI announced in his speech to the United States Senate Terrorism, Technology and Homeland Security Subcommittee that ” In conclusion, the United States faces threats from a wide range of international terrorist groups, although we assess Al Qaeda to be the greatest threat today. Their potential attacks could be large-scale, or smaller and more isolated”.
However, the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) described this security challenge by saying: ” Usama bin Ladin and his global network of lieutenants and associates remain the most immediate and serious threat” . From the above statements we can discern that various U.S. institutions involved in national security affairs consider the current phenomenon of terrorism as the most important challenges facing the United States at all.Considering this situation leads us to look at pros and cons of the successive U.S. administrations practices and put it in terms of judgment from the viewpoints of the realists and liberalists.
Starting where the problem starts, the definition of the terrorism was not clear, while the president of the united states announcing the war, which created confusion and controversy within American society in all academic classes and security agencies and other professionals. Realists perceive to deal states with states and not with individuals or small groups, while dealing with Osama bin Laden and his terrorist group, which is geographically distant will put the United States in a critical situation. As well as the case of liberalism principles which assume that the state should pursue in its war against terrorism through international organizations and seek the punishments only through the international community. Unlike the realists, who believe that the use of force for the State who has the Hegemony and dominant economic and military is an obvious thing.
All these contradictions in the practices of the United States on its fight against terrorism, will eventually lead to the prosecution of such terrorist organizations all over the world. Also it will concern and dispersing its efforts so that will be led to commit illegal and unethical practices against nations and the violation of personal freedoms, and ultimately will lead to an economic and military problems . Since the terrorism is an international issue, thus it is very important to deal with other nations.
And Diplomacy has to be used effectively to overcome all obstacles that may stand in the way of achieving the desired objectives of the counterterrorism. Where the American diplomacy has sought actively to facilitate the movements of the armed forces in different parts of the world, also to coordinate with regional and international countries to counterterrorism, and drying the sources of funding for terrorist groups and remove them from the safe bases.The role of information was very noticeable to focus on the issue of terrorism and mobilize supporters to counterterrorism through various media, as well as directing the world public opinion to the justice of this issue and the need to work together to combat this global phenomenon. In accordance to the Military power, it played a deterrent role of terrorism and its remnants, for more than a decade the armed forces have engaged in the fights against terrorism inAfghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Somalia, and many other places in the world.
As important as all other instruments of power, Economy has played a constructive role in installing of the United States pillar in its war against terrorism. Financing of a massive campaign against terrorism needs to have a huge economy as is the case in the U.S. economy. However, This campaign cost the U.S.
economy huge sums of money, estimated at hundreds of billions US Dollars. This economy has got a huge impact on the efficiency of the military performance, as well as the Construction and development processes . All of the above shows us that terrorism is the most serious challenges faced by the United States until now, where it falls under cover many types and renewed threats that change shapes generation after generation.That can also be a tool used by the emerging powers in order to disable the United States and fees, as is the case with the KGB has been proven to be involved in the supply of some terrorist groups in order to disable the security and military gains of the United States. The war against terrorism, the costs the U.
S. budget a lot of money paid as a result of the dispersion of the efforts of the United States without a large and dearest indispensable allows. Also, the U.S. war of terrorist groups down the prestige of the state and encourage terrorist acts, which makes them vulnerable to more terrorist attacks.
For these reasons, the former believe that the issue of terrorism is the most important challenge for the United States of America at all, because it can use all the means of attack, including weapons flowing mass, as these groups do not have a place or a particular country, the U.S. nuclear arsenal are not having any deterrent true if what possessed nuclear weapons .References