the dams

 THE DAMS   Abdullah Hamdan Al-Saeedi Civil Engineering, College OfEngineering, Majmaah university, Saudi Arabia [email protected]/11/2016            ABSTRACT:This reportdiscusses  main topics of the dam such asdefinition of dam, the purpose of building the dam ,the importance of the damand how the dam can prevent the flood and generate hydropower. Also this reportstudies the suitable location to build the dam ,classification of the dams andthe importance of water intake in dams.    KEYWORDS: dams, power generation ,water intake, hydropower.

                  INDEXES: Tableof content: Abstract: 2 Indexes: 3 Introduction: 5 Importance of dam: 6 Watersupply. 6 Powergeneration: 6 Stabilizewater flow: 7 Navigation: 7 Location Of Dams: 7 Significantother engineering and engineering geology regard when constructing a daminclude. 8- Permeability of the surrounding rock or soil.

8Earthquake- 8slope stability- 8Water table- 8Peak flood flows- 8 -Removalof the toxic materials. 8Classificationof dams: 9According to structure: 9Arch dams- 9Arch-gravity dams- 9Barrages dams- 9Embankment dams- 9According to materials : 9Steel dams- 9Timber dams- 9According to use: 9- Saddle dam. 9- Weir dam.

9- Check dam. 9- Dry dam.  9Water intake structure in the dam: 8The key requirement of the intake structure are: 9-An adequate size to provide the required quantityof water. 9-Locate to obtain the best quality water. 9-protected from objects that may damage equipment. 9-Easy to inspect and maintain. 9Type water Intake structure: 10? Exposed intake: constructed above the water 10?  Submerged Intake: constructedunder the water. 10RECOMMENDATION: 10Conclusion : 11References: 12    Table Of  Figures:                                                                                        Figure 1.

6Figure 2. 7Figure 3. 9Figure4.

10Figure 5. 11Figure 6. 11                1.      INTRODUCTION:A dam is a structure a  thatconstrains  the flow of water orunderground water sources. Furthermore, dams can not only be used to save livesbe constraining the flow of floods but it can used for other purposes such aswater reserving, irrigation, human consumption, industrial use and agriculture. Generally, Hydropower can be used to convert the flow of water intoelectricity.

Dams generally are consist of walls of concrete and floodgatescontrol  water flow into specific landregions. Originally,  the purpose ofbuilding a dam is not a modern discovery. In correlation, the same concept of building a dam can be related to thediscovery of the Dam construction. The ancient Egyptians in 2750-2950 B.C build the first dam which is known asgravity dams. Gravity dams are straight dams that is built masonry or concretethat resists the water load by means of weight.?[1] ?  Shown Old Timber DamFigure1    2.

      IMPORTANCEOF DAM:2.1  Water supply: Numerous urban regions of the world are provided with waterabstracted from streams repressed behind low dams or weirs?[2].  2.2 Power generation:Hydroelectric power is a major source of electricity in the world.Many nations have waterways with satisfactory water stream, that can be dammedfor control age purposes.?[3]    2.3 Stabilize water flow:The main propos of building Dams are to control and balance outwater stream, regularly for farming purposes and water system.?[4]  2.

4 Navigation:Dams make deep reservoirs and it  can also vary the flow of water downstream.This can in return affect upstream and downstream navigation by altering theriver’s depth.?[5]    shown importance of damsFigure2  3.       LOCATION OFDAMS:The best places for construct a dam is a narrow part of a deepriver valley; the valley sides then can act as natural walls. The essentialfunction of the dam’s structure is to fill the gap in the normal store lineleft by the stream channel.

. The sites are usually those where the gap becomesa minimum for the required storage capacity?[6].      Significant other engineering and engineeringgeology regard when constructing a dam include:- Permeability of the surrounding rock or soil.    Earthquake-    slopestability-    Water table-    Peak floodflows-                                                                                                                         -Removal of the toxicmaterials? [7].  4.      CLASIFICATIONOF DAMS:4.

1 According to structure:Arch dams-Gravity dams-Arch-gravity dams-Barrages dams-Embankment dams-4.2 According to materials :Steel dams-Timber dams-4.3 According to use:- Saddle dam.- Weir dam.

– Check dam.- Dry dam.?[8]    Shown Arch DamFigure3 5.      WATER INTAKE STRUCTURE IN DAMS: Intake structures are used for withdraw water from the watersources such as dams, river, lake, and reservoir and then  discharge using withdrawal conduit to reach awater treatment plant. These structures are masonry or concrete structures and providesclean water from  sand and large objects .

?[9]    The keyrequirement of the intake structure are: -An adequate size to provide the required quantity ofwater.-Locate to obtain the best quality water.-protected from objects that may damage equipment.

-Easy to inspect and maintain?[10].    Shown water IntakeFigure4      Type waterIntake structure? Exposed intake: constructed above the water ?  Submerged Intake: constructedunder the water?[11].    Exposed intakeFigure 5 Submerged intake                                                                                    6  Figure 6.      RECOMMENDATIONAround the world, there is a huge need for clean and reuse wastewater, and by using  water intake in thedam will provide these services which has economic cost comparing with anothermethod. The same thing applies to energy supplies. Hydroelectric power is amajor source of electricity in the world and Large dams often provide theseservices at a massive social, environmental and economic cost.

The good news isthat better solutions exist. Clean, local energy sources such as wind, and hydropowerhave become affordable and widely available.  7.      CONCLUSIONThis report cover many topic about dam such as importance of damswhich are water supply, power generation, stabilize of water flow andnavigation. The best places for construct a dam is a narrow part of a deepriver valley. The report also discusses the classification of dams accordingto  structure, materials and use.

At the end of the report there are some ideas about the waterintake like the key requirement of the water intake structure. water intake consist of two type exposed intake andsubmerged intake.Study of foundation of dam will be the future work.            REFERENCES BOOKS:[1]    EdwardWegmann. The Design and Construction of Dam.

1908.[2]    ICIDPosition Paper. Rule of Dams For Irrigation, Drainage and Flood Control.1999.[3]    ICIDPosition Paper. Rule of Dams For Irrigation, Drainage and Flood Control.1999.

[4]    ICIDPosition Paper. Rule of Dams For Irrigation, Drainage and Flood Control.1999.[5]    ICIDPosition Paper. Rule of Dams For Irrigation, Drainage and Flood Control.

1999.[6]    BarryLewis. Small Dams: planning, construction and maintenance.1942.[7]    BarryLewis. Small Dams: planning, construction and maintenance.1942.

[8]    Sharadk. Jain. Hydrology and Water Resource of India.[9]    Markj Hammer. Water and Waste Water Technology.

[10]  Mark j Hammer. Water and Waste Water Technology.[11]  Mark j Hammer.

Water and Waste Water Technology.  

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