The Effect of External Factors Upon Cardiovascular System and Its Controlling Mechanisms Essay

Human Sciences – Reflective feedback/Feedforward Form – to be submitted with the final assignment Make this PAGE 1 of your assignment!! NAME: HAIDER SHEIKH STUDENT NUMBER: M00398469 What did you understand from the lecturer’s feedback comments on your formative lab report? – title was not illustrative enough, just a mere two words. – Abstract was superficial, not focussed upon the subject area and lacked specificity. – Abstract did not have aims, the origin of experiment and the usage, the key results were missing and there were no significant data present. Introduction is a short review not a paragraph on unfocussed research that is undirected. – Don’t give hypothesis as a personal opinion- good representation of results- NO analysis and part of discussion missing due to uploading error as the document fails to load. | What were the main areas for improvement? – Analysis- Introduction- Discussion- Abstract| How have you used the feedback to prepare and present your work and final submission? – I have spent much time on my abstract and made it directed and specific to the area topic I am doing my lab report in. I have learned not to use hypothesis as a personal opinion but as a ‘theory’ that needs to be backed up by data. – I have spent time on analysis and discussion, trying to show it direction and also interrogated the results, just as requested by my lecturer. | How did you find receiving feedback without an attached grade? I found the review to be exceptionally detailed and to the point. The review was straightforward and harsh, which allowed me to see my mistakes and take them fully on board to enhance my work upto a 2:1 standard at least.

The review also helped me to see how much I understood about writing reports and that my way was completely wrong in terms of approaching and interpreting my data. The biggest thing was that the review was true and to the point, and not sugar coated. Hopefully, I will use this review to enhance my lab report writing skills and get the best results I can. | What value do YOU think your work is worth and why? I donot think my work was worth anything more than what my lecturer marked it because I can see where I went wrong, and if you look at the comments and apply them to my work ,they make perfect sense.

I believe this to be one of the worst work I have produced in a long time, as I have never written lab reports before, therefore, I wanted to experiment as to which way was right. Any other comments? Im good. :D| The effect of external factors upon cardiovascular system and its controlling mechanisms. BMS 1515 Human sciences Student Name: Haider Sheikh Student Number: M00398469 Tutor Name: Sheila Cunningham The effect of external factors upon cardiovascular system and its controlling mechanisms. Abstract;

This study was designed to show how external factors such as exercise, body posture, cognitive activity and sensory inputs can have an impact upon the cardiovascular system, particularly the blood pressure and pulse rate. The practical was divided into four activities; exercise, body posture, cognitive activity and sensory input via human diving reflex. The study found out that pulse rate increased as the subjects exercised, by about 30-45%, as 72. 5 bpm mean resting pulse increased to 105bpm after 10 minutes of exercise.

The study also found out the decent position to have a blood test, the mean arterial pressure closest to the resting arterial pressure (90mmHg), was when the subject was sitting down with his arms level to the heart, it was 92. 2mmHg. The study found that relaxation can cause a decrease in heart rate as the heart rate fell from 72. 5bpm, mean resting pulse, to 64. 1bpm whilst massaging. Anxiety and fear were found to have adverse effect, causing heart rate to rise to 94. 1bpm and 81. 9bpm respectively. Sensory inputs, when face was immersed in water, initiated a human diving response causing heart rate to drop.

It dropped from 72. 5bpm to 63. 4bpm in warm water (22’C) and 65. 6bpm in cold water (0’C). The report also highlighted the mechanisms involved in cardiovascular control and blood pressure control. Introduction; The cardiovascular system is, in the meekest terms, a system consisting of pumps, pipes, and fluid called blood. Often viewed as the most important, the cardiovascular system is the initiator of all other body systems. At the centre of the system is the heart, which acts as the engine pumping blood around the body via veins and arteries, the ‘transport networks’ of the system (Adams, 2008).

The blood travels along these ‘transport networks’, to and fro the heart, to provide nutrients to all the cells and pick up waste products. The closed circuit ‘transport network’ is impressively elastic, allowing it to withstand pressures and stresses without being damaged. Any imbalance or disturbance within the system can prove to be damaging or even life threatening (Marieb, 2011). Hence, patients are routinely checked for their blood pressure and pulse rate, as these simple tests are extremely informative about the patients’ health and homeostasis.

In order to get the results, devices such as the electric Sphygmomanometer have to be used to determine blood pressure and EGC’s have to be used to extract pulse rate data. Then, these results have to be interpreted and evaluated correctly to ensure the right step forward for the patient, which could prove critical. The control of blood pressure and pulse rate are both interlinked. The cardiac centre in the brain determines the heart rate of the body, which depends upon the information it receives via its baroreceptors and chemoreceptors throughout the body (Dumont & Kinkead, 2010).

Both blood pressure and pulse rate rise and fall simultaneously, allowing our body to maintain homeostasis and ensuring a normal existence for us. Hypothetically, there are many ways in which blood pressure and pulse rate readings can be altered due to various external factors, such as arm position, posture or activity. It is the general consensus that blood pressure and pulse rate increase due to exercise and decrease back to their resting rate during recovery. Cognitive activity and sensory inputs are also thought to be involved in determining the rates of body blood pressure or pulse rate (Vaisse et al. 003). It is widely believed that relaxing can reduce these rates, whereas stress or exertive thinking can increase them. There will also be an insight upon how the human diving response affects our blood pressure and pulse rates, as emphasis will be put upon how different temperatures can influence our pulse rates. This is because the pulse, supposedly, should increase during apnea and facial immersion in cold water (0’C) and decrease during facial immersion in warm water (22’C). The aims of this practical are; – Accurately measure pulse rate and blood pressure, using appropriate devices and methods. Describe the effects of postures, activities and manoeuvres upon blood pressure – Explain the importance of right procedures for recording blood pressure data results – Outlining factors that control blood pressure and pulse rate. Methods; The laboratory practical was divided into four separate activities. The activities were carried out in the order as mentioned below. The materials needed for the four activities was an electric Sphygmomanometer, stopwatch, couch, Ergometer and 2 basins of water at 0’C and at 22’C. The blood pressure was always calculated using the electric Sphygmomanometer.

The measurements for blood pressure were taken using the electric Sphygmomanometer. The inflatable collar was fitted onto the left arm, around the bicep. This was because of the brachial artery, which runs from the heart straight into the left arm. This was left on the subject, until the electronic device gave a reading which was recorded. Activity One; Effect of exercise on Blood pressure and Pulse rate Activity one was carried out by appointing a subject within the group. Then, the subject was asked to sit and rest for 15 minutes.

After, the subject was fitted with an inflatable collar around his arm connected to a digital machine. The pulse rate and blood pressure was recorded, using the Sphygmomanometer, and the inflatable collar was removed. The subject was then asked to sit on the cycle ergometer for 10 minutes, maintain a constant speed of 7kj/min. After the 10 minute exercise, the subject was again fitted with the inflatable collar and the pulse rate and blood pressure was recorded again. The pulse rate and blood pressure were constantly recorded, after every 2 minutes, until they returned to the pre-exercise levels.

Activity Two; Effect of Body posture on Blood pressure The subject was asked to keep his arms level with the heart whist sitting down. An inflatable collar was fitted upon the left arm of the subject and to take the blood pressure measurements. After this, the subject was then asked to lie down for 10 minutes and still keep his arms level with his heart, the blood pressure was recorded again. After this, the subject was asked to stand up, immediately after lying down, and the blood pressure measurements were taken again.

The subject was then instructed to lie down again and raise his arms above the level of the heart, towards the ceiling, and the blood pressure measurements were taken again. Lastly, the subject was asked to drop his arms below the level of the heart, towards the floor, and the blood pressure measurements were recorded accordingly. Activity Three; Effect of cognitive activity and secondary inputs upon pulse. The subject was instructed to sit down and a resting pulse rate was recorded. The pulse rate was taken by gently pressing down on the carotid artery in the neck to feel the rhythmic thumps.

The subject was told to recite the times tables from 3 upwards for 2 minutes, whereas in the 3rd minute the subject was asked to continue reciting the times table whilst their pulse rate was taken. After, the subject was asked to relax, either by listening to music or being massage by a fellow student, for 10 minutes. Throughout this time, fingers were kept upon the carotid pulse whilst the pulse was recorded towards the end of 10 minutes. Then, the subject was asked to shut their eyes and recall a stressful event in their life, either orally or quietly.

After doing this for 1 minute, the pulse rate of the subject was again taken and recorded. Activity Four; The human diving response. The subject was asked if they had asthma, fear of water or feeling unwell. If not, the subject was asked to sit on a bench, whilst resting his elbows upon the table. Another student was asked to take the radial pulse of the subject’s heart rate, this was done constantly throughout the activity. The first test was for the subject to hold their breath for 30 seconds, then resting for 5 minutes.

The second test was to immerse their head in room temperature water for 30 seconds, gently patting the subject on the back to signal the end of the test. The third test was a simulated dive, where the subject was made to immerse their head into cold water. Before each test, the subject was asked to take a deep, not maximum, breath in without hyperventilating. The temperature of the water was also measured prior to the test itself and facial immersions were only done up to the temples. Between each test, the subject was allowed to rest for 5 minutes for to allow pulse rate to stabilise before commencing the next test.

The pulse was taken for 30 seconds and multiplied by 2 after each test. Results The results of these experiments were used to show the effect of manoeuvres and body positioning can have upon our pulse rate and blood pressure. The pulse rate was measured by pressing down on the radial or carotid pulse and counting the ‘thumps’ per minute, whereas the blood pressure was calculated digitally by using a sphygmomanometer device, which required an inflatable collar to be fitted to the subjects arm. The blood pressure data was recorded in millimetres of mercury (mmHg), whereas pulse rate was recorded in beats per minute (bpm).

Table 1 shows the class data generated from ten different subjects of varying somatotypes and ages. The sample consisted of five males and females subjects each. Table 1 shows how long it took for the blood pressure (mmHg) and pulse rate (bpm) to fall back to their pre-exercise rate after 10 minutes of exercise for each subject. After exercising, the data was recorded every 2 minutes until the pre-exercise levels were reached. The common trend seen is that the pulse rate and blood pressure increase and decrease simultaneously.

They immediately shoot up when exercising and begin to decrease when resting. Table 1 also generally shows that females had a longer recovery time compared to the males, with all five female subjects taking longer than 8 minutes to recover and all male subjects recovering under 8 minutes. Table 1; The recovery time of ten different subjects after being subjected to a 10 minutes exercise. Subject (age/sex)| At rest(mmHg/bpm)| 10 mins exercise(mmHg/bpm)| Recovery2 mins(mmHg/bpm)| Recovery4 mins(mmHg/bpm)| Recovery6 mins(mmHg/bpm)| Recovery8 mins(mmHg/bpm)| After; mins)(mmHg/bpm)| 1 (19/F)| 115/80| 79| 152/96| 144| 139/87| 129| 131/84| 115| 122/81| 98| 117/80| 84| 113/78| 79| {12}| 2 (19/M)| 114/68| 64| 145/91| 118| 137/86| 109| 126/83| 91| 117/76| 78| 116/73| 64| /| /| /| 3 (23/F)| 121/82| 74| 158/98| 141| 143/91| 120| 141/86| 113| 139/84| 97| 126/82| 81| 120/81| 74| {10}| 4 (20/F)| 121/81| 81| 156/97| 149| 146/95| 134| 146/93| 121| 130/90| 114| 128/85| 102| 123/79| 82| {14}| 5 (19/M)| 115/77| 62| 142/88| 112| 135/84| 97| 127/82| 84| 116/76| 63| /| /| /| /| /| 6 (26/F)| 123/80| 70| 159/97| 133| 147/92| 129| 146/89| 110| 142/87| 98| 130/82| 82| 124/81| 72| {10}| 7 (19/F)| 126/81| 87| 162/99| 153| 152/97| 141| 149/94| 132| 147/90| 126| 138/87| 112| 127/82| 89| {16}| 8 (21/M)| 117/79| 65| 147/91| 124| 138/87| 108| 119/86| 87| 118/78| 68| /| /| /| /| /| 9 (23/M)| 121/82| 72| 154/93| 129| 142/89| 114| 126/88| 94| 124/85| 79| 122/83| 73| /| /| /| 10 (18/M)| 117/78| 71| 152/93| 127| 144/87| 109| 129/84| 95| 123/82| 84| 117/81| 72| /| /| /| Table 2 shows the systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the subject when subjected to a number of different arm positions. It also shows the mean arterial pressure which has been calculated by using the equation MAP = [(2 x diastolic)+systolic] / 3 The diastole pressure was counted twice because 2/3 of the cardiac cycle is spent in diastole. The table 2 shows that the blood pressure decreased when the subject was asked to keep his arms at heart level whilst lying down, it was 84. 7 mmHg.

The lowest MAP was observed when the subject was asked to raise his arms above the heart level, causing the MAP to be 61. 3mmHg. The highest MAP, 109. 3mmHg, was seen when the subject was asked to drop his arms below the heart level. The MAP also decreased when the subject stood immediately after lying down, the MAP recorded 77. 7mmHg. The MAP when standing with arms level with the heart was 87. 3mmHg, this was the second closest MAP to the resting 90mmHg. The nearest MAP was 92. 2mmHg, this was recorded when the subject was asked to sit with the arms level to the heart. Table 2; The recovery time of ten different subjects after being subjected to a 10 minutes exercise. Subject 6| Systolic BP| Diastolic BP| Mean

Arterial pressure(MAP = [(2 x diastolic)+systolic] /3)| Arms level (lying)| 112| 71| 84. 7| Arms above (lying)| 92| 46| 61. 3| Arms below (lying)| 149| 86| 109. 3| Standing Immediately| 93| 70| 77. 7| Arms level (standing)| 118| 72| 87. 3| Arms level (sitting)| 126| 76| 92. 2| This data from table 2 was used to generate figure 1 to show how mean arterial pressure behaved in different postures. The figure 1 shows a yellow line, which symbolises the resting MAP, it was 90mmHg. The figure 1 also shows that the biggest difference in MAP was recorded when the subject raised his arms above heart level, which caused the MAP to decrease to 61. 3mmHg.

The figure 1 showed that when the subject levelled their arms, the MAP was consistent around 84. 7-92. 2mmHg. 90 mmHg 90 mmHg Figure 1; Mean Arterial pressure to show how different arm positions alter blood pressure. Table 3 shows the effect cognitive activity has on pulse rate. The table 3 shows how the pulse rate of all ten subjects whilst resting, reciting times table, during massage and whilst recalling a stressful event. The table 3 shows how the mean pulse rate for all ten subjects was 72. 5bpm, which climbed to 94. 1bpm when reciting the times table. The mean pulse rate decreased below the rest pulse rate whilst the subject was being massaged, it was 64. 1bpm. The mean pulse rate increased again to 81. when the subjects were asked to recall a stressful event. Generally, the main patterns seen in table 3 are that the pulse rate increases when reciting the times table, decreases whilst being massaged and increases again above the resting pulse rate when remembering a stressful event. Subject| Resting Pulse rate (bpm)| Times table Pulse rate (bpm)| Massage Pulse rate(bpm)| Stressful event Pulse rate(bpm)| 1| 79| 101| 64| 86| 2| 64| 82| 58| 78| 3| 74| 84| 67| 79| 4| 81| 96| 74| 91| 5| 62| 88| 59| 68| 6| 70| 98| 64| 78| 7| 87| 104| 76| 91| 8| 65| 79| 54| 71| 9| 72| 110| 64| 94| 10| 71| 99| 61| 83| Mean| 72. 5| 94. 1| 64. 1| 81. 9| SD| 7. 9| 10. 3| 6. 8| 8. 6|

Table 3; The effect on pulse rates whilst carrying out various cognitive activity The mean data from table 3 was used to generate a diagram to emphasise the effect of cognitive activity on blood pressure. The figure 2 shows the mean pulse rate if all ten subjects, which is 72. 5bpm. The figure 2 shows that the mean pulse rate increases to 94. 1bpm whilst reciting the times table. The mean pulse rate drops again to 64. 1bpm when the subjects are massaged and relaxed. However, the mean pulse rate increases again to 81. 9bpm as the subjects recall a stressful memory. The lowest pulse rate was measured whilst the subject was being massaged, it was 64. 1mmHg.

The highest mean pulse rate was measured when the subject was reciting the times table, it was 94. 1mmHg. Figure 2; The effect of cognitive activity upon the pulse rate for all subjects. Table 4 shows the effect of human diving response upon the pulse rate. The table 4 shows heart rate whilst rest, apnea, facial immersion in warm water (22’C) and facial immersion in cold water (0’C). The mean pulse rate, whilst resting, is 72. 5bpm with standard deviation of 7. 9. The mean apnea pulse rate increases to 105. 1bpm, with a standard deviation of 8. 1. The table 4 also shows that facial immersions in warm water have a lower mean pulse rate, compared to facial immersions in cold water.

The mean pulse rate for room temperature water (22’C) was 63. 4bpm and for cold water (0’C), was 85. 6bpm respectively. Table 4; The effect of human diving response to the pulse rate. Subject| Resting Pulse rate(bpm)| Apnea Pulse rate(bpm)| Room temp water (22’C) Pulse rate(bpm)| Cold water (0’C) Pulse rate(bpm)| 1| 79| 109| 58| 84| 2| 64| 95| 56| 86| 3| 74| 93| 69| 8| 4| 81| 116| 70| 91| 5| 62| 98| 53| 78| 6| 70| 108| 67| 86| 7| 87| 114| 73| 95| 8| 65| 99| 57| 74| 9| 72| 110| 64| 94| 10| 71| 109| 67| 83| Mean| 72. 5| 105. 1| 63. 4| 65. 6| SD| 7. 9| 8. 1| 6. 8| 6. 5| Discussion; Many findings and results were obtained and analysed during this practical.

The four activities that were carried out, gave us concluding data to determine if the hypothesis generated were right or not. Analysing the data of activity one, activity two, activity three and four will also allow us to achieve the aims of the study. In activity one, it was investigated if exercise has any bearing upon our heart rate or blood pressure. It was thought that exercise will increase our blood pressure and heart rate. From table 1, we can see a regular pattern of fluctuation in both blood pressure and pulse rate when the subjects are made to exercise. It can be seen that blood pressure and pulse rate rise considerably after 10 minutes of exercise, which ranges from 112bpm-144bpm.

This rise in pulse rate is caused by increased demand of oxygen and glucose by the muscle cells. The respiring cells release CO2 into the blood as the waste product of cellular respiration, causing the blood pH to fall below the normal range of 7. 35. The chemoreceptors based in the medulla oblongata detect this increase in CO2 and decrease in both O2 and blood pH. The medulla oblongata initiates a decrease in parasympathetic stimulation of the heart and the sympathetic stimulation is increased (Julius et all. , 2008). This causes increased heart rate and stroke volume, which contributes to high blood pressure and the cardiac output has now increase.

Along with this, vasoconstriction caused by sympathetic stimulation further narrows the blood vessels, causing increased blood pressure. This is clearly evident in table 1 as the pulse rate and blood pressure of all subjects increases simultaneously. After the 10 minute exercise, the rates begin to fall steadily as the demand for O2 and glucose decreases. The increased blood pressure is picked up by the baroreceptors situated at the carotid sinus and aortic arch. The baroreceptors increase their impulse action potentials, which are sent to the cardio-regulatory centre in the medulla oblongata. The cardio-regulatory centre increases the parasympathetic stimulation of the heart via the vagus nerve, causing the heart rate to decrease (Ganong, 2012).

The cardio-regulatory centre also decreases the sympathetic stimulation of the blood vessels, causing them to dilate. The decreased heart rate and stroke volume, combined with vasodilation bring the elevated blood pressure back towards normality. Therefore, the hypothesis that blood pressure and pulse rate increase when exercising and decrease afterwards, was clearly visible in table 1. In activity two, the effect of posture on blood pressure was investigated. A mean arterial pressure (MAP), was calculated to determine the increases and decreases of blood pressure during different postures. The first posture was arms level whilst lying down, the subjects’ MAP was recorded to be 84. 7mmHg.

This was very close to the resting MAP of 90mmHg as when lying down, the blood isn’t flowing against gravity. Hence, the heart doesn’t exert extra effort to pump blood so the blood pressure remains normal. However, when the subject raised his arms above heart level whilst lying down, the MAP decreased rapidly to a mere 61. 3mmHg. This decrease in blood pressure was caused by the hydrostatic pressure of blood (Kumar et all. , 2010). This is the pressure applied towards the heart by blood due to gravity, and this increases simultaneously with height. Therefore, when the arms were raised above heart level, the increased height causes the hydrostatic pressure to increases. Hence, the blood applies added pressure downwards to the heart.

This causes the blood pressure to decrease as extra pressure is required to subdue the increased hydrostatic pressure. The MAP increased to 109. 3mmHg when the subject was asked to drop his arms below the heart level whilst lying down. This was considerably higher MAP than the resting MAP because when the arm was lowered, the distance height also decreased. The gravity also aided blood to flow down the arm, because the hydrostatic pressure had already decreased. Therefore, blood pressure increased as less pressure was needed to subdue the hydrostatic pressure. Table 2 also showed that MAP decreased to 77. 7mmHg when the subject stood up immediately after lying down.

This decreased blood pressure is referred to as Orthostatic hypotension, which is caused by gravity-induced blood pooling in the legs. This compromises the intravenous return into the heart, causing a decreased cardiac output and MAP. The decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressures causes an inadequate blood perfusion in the upper part of the body, causing light headedness and dizziness (Madigan et all. , 2006). The body immediately initiates a baroreceptor reflex, which causes vasoconstriction and pulls the blood up into the body again. When standing or sitting, there was no obvious variance in the MAP, it was 87. 3mmHg and 92. 2mmHg respectively.

This is because when you stand, gravity causes blood to pool around the leg veins, instigating a drop in blood pressure. However, the autonomic nervous system amends this by narrowing the blood vessels (vasoconstriction), causing an increase in the heart rate and pressure. This was the reason the blood pressure was normal when sitting with arms level to the heart. This can all be seen in figure 1, which shows how different arm postures led to a difference in MAP, when compared to the resting MAP. This shows that the best procedure to calculate blood pressure was to have level arms whilst sitting down. This is because no hydrostatic pressures would be able to come into play, and neither would be gravity.

This will allow more accurate reading of the blood pressure as there would be no cognitive factors acting upon the heart rate and the left arm is more suited because of the brachial artery. Activity three explained the effects of cognitive activity and sensory inputs upon heart rate. The table 3 shows the mean pulse rate of all ten subjects when they carried out different activities, such as reciting the times table. This produced a mean pulse rate of 94. 1bpm, which is considerably higher than the mean resting pulse rate of 72. 5bpm. This increase in pulse rate was caused by the release of epinephrine, adrenaline and cortisol chemicals in the body when the subjects got nervous.

Adrenaline in the bloodstream stimulates the adrenergic receptors on cells throughout cardiac tissue. Once stimulated, these receptors pass on the fight-or-flight memo to a G-protein, increasing the heart rate. This was again seen in figure 2, when the subjects recalled a stressful event and the mean pulse rate increased to 81. 9bpm. The mean pulse rate decreased to 64. 1bpm when the subject was massaged. This was because acetylcholine is released when the mind is relaxed, by the hypothalamus in the brain. It is a neurotransmitter that works upon ganglion receptors, and binds to these receptors causing increased parasympathetic output and thus decreasing the heart rate.

The data from table 3 was presented using diagrams in figure 2. The figure 2 displayed how different cognitive activities effected the mean pulse rate. Activity four investigated how the human diving response effects the pulse rate. The table 4 showed mean resting data, 72. 5bpm, and used this to compare the other data. Apnea is the cessation of breathing induced by diving, the mean pulse rate being 105. 1bpm. This mean pulse rate was considerably higher than the resting rate as when we stop breathing, we stop taking in O2 and expelling CO2. Therefore, a lack of supply will cause the imbalance of their levels, causing a change in pH ( Madigan et all. , 2006).

This will trigger a sympathetic response, just like when the subject was exercising in table 1. Eventually, the heart starts to beat faster to transport O2. As soon as the subject breathes again, the rate will come down to normal again. Table 4 also shows that the mean pulse rate during facial immersion in cold water (0’C) was higher than during facial immersion in warm water (22’C), they were 85. 6bpm and 63. 4bpm respectively. This test was a simulated dive, which was designed to demonstrate the diving reflex, which is a reduction in heart rate (bradycardia) whilst diving. The mean pulse rates during both facial immersions, in cold and warm water, were lower than the mean resting pulse rate.

This is because immediately upon facial immersion with cold water, the heart rate slows down to reduce the need for bloodstream oxygen, supplying it only to vital organs. When under high pressure induced by diving, capillaries in the extremities shut off to stop blood circulation to these areas. Toes and fingers shut off first, then hands and feet. Eventually, both arms and legs stop blood circulation, leaving more blood to use by the heart and brain (Ayus et all. , 2008). This caused the decreased mean pulse rate during immersion when compared to apnea, because during apnea, blood supply is not shit off to externalities and hence the heart rate increases. Conclusion In conclusion, we have found out that there are many different activities, postures and factors that can effect heart rate and blood pressure.

In activity one, we were able to show how heart rate and blood pressure increased and decreased due to activity and the autonomic nervous system. Activity two showed us the effects of body posture on blood pressure, as hydrostatic pressures and gravity produced altered data when arms were placed above or below the heart level. We determined how Orthostatic hypotension is caused and also that the best position to calculate blood pressure was sitting down with arms level to the heart. Activity three proved how cognitive activity and sensory inputs also have a role in our pulse rate and how this happens. Activity four showed us the mechanisms involved in the human diving response and the data to back it.

Overall, we managed to explain the accurate way of measuring blood pressure and pulse rate, along with showing the importance of blood pressure record keeping. We have also been successful in outlining factors that control blood pressure and pulse rate. Reference list; Adams, G. (1998) Exercise Physiology Laboratory Manual. 14th ed. New York: McGraw Hill. Ayus, J. C. , Achinger, S. G. , Arieff, A. (2008) Human diving response and circulatory system. American journal of physiology renal physiology [online] 28/04. Available at: http://ajprenal. physiology. org/content/295/3/F619. abstract [Accessed 29/10/2012]. Barett, K. E. , Barman, S. M. , Boitano, S. , Brooks, H. L. (2012) Ganong’s Review of Medical Physiology. 24th ed. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. Julius, O. , Shil, C. K. , Mark, L. A. 2008) Effects of an sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 5 (10): 118-129 Kumar, A. , Grover, S. , Sharma, J. , Batish, V. K. (2010) Hydrostatic pressures: sources and biotechnological interventions. Critical reviews in biotechnology, 30 (4): 243-258 Madigan, M. T. , Martinko, J. M. (2006) Brock Biology of Microorganisms. 11th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education. Marieb, E. N. (2011) Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology. 10th ed. San Francisco: Pearson-Benjamin Cummings. Vaisse B, Delage Y, Renucci JF, Vial H, Michel F, Poggi L. (2003) La Revue de medecine interne 14 (2):84-89

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