The study aims to analyze literal translation and other translation procedures

The study aims to analyze literal translation and other translation procedures, presented in Ba Gyi Aung Nyar Tal (the source text) by Min Thu Wun and its translated text version by Thagyi Gazette U Khin Maung, based on Newmark (1988)’s theory. It is mainly focused on the use of literal translation and partly on other translation procedures in terms of phrases, clauses and bigger units which support the theme of the short story. Qualitative research method is applied in this research. This paper will mainly figure out what difficulties are discovered in translating ST to TT. It is hoped that the results of this research would make a contribution to the development of the field of translation and further studies.


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First, our group would like to express our appreciation to Professor Dr Kyi Shwin, the Rector of Yangon University of Foreign Languages, for giving opportunities to implement this term paper in our final year.
Next, we would like to show our gratitude towards Professor Dr Ni Ni Aung, Head of the Department of English, Yangon University of Foreign Languages, with the helpful suggestions in a great support.
Furthermore, we are also grateful to our supervisor, U Aung Zaw Moe, lecturer of the Department of English, YUFL) for the time, support and guidance in our term paper to successfully bring to an end.
Finally, we would like to extend our grateful thanks to all the teachers at the Department of English, Yangon University of Foreign Languages, for their contributions to our understandings in accomplishment of this term paper.

1.1 Background of the Study 5
1.2 Scope of the Study 5
1.3 Aims ; Objectives 6
2.1 What is Translation? 7
2.2 Translation methods by Newmark 7
2.3 Translation procedures by Newmark 9
2.4 Biography 12
2.4.1 Biography of the Author “Min Thu Wun” 12
2.4.2 Biography of the Translator “Thagyi Gazette U Khin Maung” 13
3.1 Data Collection 14
3.2 Research Method 14
3.3 Research Procedures 14
3.4 Research Questions 14


This paper attempts to analyze the literal translation and other translation procedures in the selected “Ba Gyi Aung Nyar Dal” novel. It really intends to study the strategies used by the translator in translating by using literal translation and other translation procedures in the selected novel by Min Thu Wun into Myanmar. The translating Myanmar novel is complicated as it includes cultural aspects, social aspects, geographical aspects, aesthetic aspects and many others and this nature makes translators to take a precarious balance in usage of literal translation and other translation procedures when translating from language to language, culture to culture. Undoubtedly, a study on the translation procedures of the novel “Ba Gyi Aung Nyar Dal” novel will bring about some good examples of effective strategies and techniques for literal translation in Myanmar.

1.1 Background of the Study
Translation has played as an important role in every aspects of fields, especially in literary fields. Although English is known as a global language of communication, many countries still prefer to converse in their local tongue. Translation offers an insight into the culture and attitudes of other country. Though there are a lot of novels which have been translated from English to Myanmar, novels translated from Myanmar to English are rarely found. So, this term paper is focused on Uncle Aung -You Are a Humbug (???????????????) translated by Thagyi Gazette U Khin Maung. In addition, the translator U Khin Maung, under the pen name “??????”, wrote many stories in English newspapers. He also worked as an editor in Thuriya and Gazette newspaper which are written in English. Most of the foreign credited his works due to his excellent writing skills in English. From the short novel “???????????????”, the literal and cultural words which reflects the ancient Myanmar colonial period applied by the translator in the target text will be examined.

1.2 Scope of the Study
The study is analyzed only 20 selected words, using the method of literal translation and others translation procedures proposed by Newmark (1988), as a result of time limitation.
1.3 Aims and Objectives of the research
The aims of the study are to find out the difficulties and the challenges when doing the translation and to highlight the cultural differences in different languages. The study is determined by the use of words and phrases in colonial time.


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