There are many ways that can be used in conveying ideas or messages to the public

There are many ways that can be used in conveying ideas or messages to the public. In this case, types of technique that can be applied when using propaganda or advertisement as the communication form.

Delwiche (2011) mentioned several techniques of propaganda that have been identified by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis; IPA in short, which are separated to 8 types, some of these techniques will be mentioned in the analysis such as Name-calling, which is one of the technique that trying to manipulate the audience’s impression towards something or someone in a negative way. Glittering generalities on the other hand, is the opposite of the Name-calling technique, whereas it aims to influence the audiences into believing a particular idea without even needing to look after the evidence themselves and there is Bandwagon, where this technique gains the trust of the audiences by targeting for a large groups with the same ideas and not individuals, because of the fact that most of the people tend to follow the crowd and wants to be outdated or left behind. The idea of this technique is, “everyone else is doing it, so should you.” But Fear on the other hand, is a technique that based as what is called, by using the intimidation and fear to gain trust from the audience which they will do or behave to reduce the fear itself. There are also other types such as Euphemisms, Transfer, Testimonials, and Plain Folks.

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There are many other terms that have been identified by other experts as well, some of them are card-stacking, demonizing the enemy, flag waving, etc. One of the other related technique that this paper is going to discuss is demonizing the enemy, as Smith mentioned that according to Conserva (2003), the definition of demonizing the enemy is a technique to influence the audience into believing that the other opposite party is a threat (n.d.).

Same goes for advertising, there are several techniques that need to be applied when advertising is used as the communication form. Some of the techniques that advertisers use might be sharing the same aspect with the propagandas’ technique, since both are a persuasive form of communication. According to NCTE/IRA; short for National Council of Teacher Education/International Reading Association (2009), there are several types of techniques that advertisers use, such as Avante Garde, Weasel Words, Magic Ingredients, Patriotism, Snob Appeal, and Bribery.

There are some similar technique of advertisement that crossover with the propaganda techniques as well, such as Transfer, Plain Folks, and Bandwagon. Both opinion from Delwiche (2011) and NCTE/IRA (2009) stated a similar characteristic of these three techniques.


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