Today, the constitutions of almost all of the world’s 160 nations incorporate protection of human rights. This section explores the influence of international developments on Indian constitutional jurisprudence. The end of World War II heralded the dawn of a new era in which violations of freedoms and rights no longer remained within the exclusive dominion of domestic concern. Indeed, the United Nations Charter,’71 the most widely ratified instrument in the world, established human rights as a matter of international concern. In 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 27 ” articulating the importance of rights that were threatened during the 1940s. Following the adoption of the Universal Declaration, two other important human rights instruments were drafted: the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (“ICCPR”) 2 9 and the International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights (“ICESCR”).’ * These three instruments comprise the International Bill of Human Rights-a comprehensive bundle of human rights obligations that the United Nations imposes on its members. In 1947 india gained the independence and thus the laborious task of forming the constitution began therefore. Though in bits and pieces the essence of human rights can be found in Hinduism, Buddhist, Islamic, Christian and many other religious doctrines. It was not until the formation of constitution that its proper manifestation can be seen. Through this paper starting very briefly with constituent assembly I try to focus on similarities between Indian constitution and UDHR and later international conventions such as ICCPR and ICESCR; adaptability by the Indian judiciary of the international human rights considerations and principles in interpreting the constiutuions liberally.


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