Topography – The natural landscape within the UK consists of a mainly flat land area Essay

The natural landscape within the UK consists of a mainly flat land area. With the majority of England included in the flat land mass the major cities are populated close to the edge of the country or on the side of a national river to allow easy transport and access. In England we have a few higher peaks than sea level as the Pennines run through the north of the country from the east of the Cumbrian Mountains down to the south of the country just outside Manchester. In the rest of England there are smaller peaks of hills/mountains which are:-

* Cumbrian Mountains * North York Moors * Cotswald Hills

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* Chiltern Hills * Salisbury Plain * North Downs

In Wales we have the Cambrian Mountains as there is a great deal of high ground in the country. As Wales is dominated by a mountains they also have a high number of sporting resorts within the mountainous regions. They can provide skiing at some of the highest points of the peaks and there are many outdoor activity resorts that can provide:-

* rock climbing

* absailing

* rafting

* hiking

* mountain climbing

The USA is divided into so many states with so many regions of mountainous areas that they find it hard to identify particular regions because of their similarity with other regions from around the world. The majority of the USA is suspended above sea level apart from the following states:-

* Florida * Georgia * North Carolina * Alabama * Mississippi

These are mainly because the sea is level with the states. Florida has a great deal of Everglades to its name as Florida is the main attraction to the states. Although Georgia on a topographical map seems like it is raised much higher above sea level most of it you can see that it falls into same natural specifications as Florida. For that reason there are the Appalachain Mountains where they are used for a wide variety of activities such as in Wales but with a more distinct approach to outdoor activities so it is easy to see how citizens use these mountains as a way for recreational activities.

The western USA also is very much desecrated by the deserts of the US. Some states like Colorado, Nevada, Utah and Nevada have a wide range of mountains and high ground raised at least 2000 meters above sea level as these areas provide the most western world ski resorts in the US. For this they are able to provide skiing all year round because of such a high altitude area.

Climate

The Climate of the world varies a great deal. Rainfall over the majority of the world is under the section of under 25mm of rainfall per year which includes other forms of precipitation. This mainly applies to countries above the equator. South of the equator they range from 50mm to over 400mm of rainfall each year including other precipitation that falls within that year.

The temperatures within the world are as follows:-

* Above the tropic of cancer the temperatures range from 24 degrees Celsius to -24 degrees Celsius in the Northern Artic Circle.

* Below the Tropic of Cancer the variable temperatures range from 24 degrees Celsius to about 8 degrees Celsius. In South America there are two small briar patches where temperatures drop to zero or below freezing point. This main stretch is known as the Andes and there is also another region in Southern Argentina covered by a high land mass of mountainous regions.

Japan has a wide ranged layout of its country with various differences. For a start the whole country is covered by so many high hills/mountain that living costs a lot having to live in the centre of the cities. Tokyo which is the capital of Japan is around 8 million in 1995 but this will now have probably have reached much higher rates by the year 2000.

Culture

The world has many different cultures and backgrounds within the world. Despite the USA and the UK which have varied cultures within one nation. On the other hand there are places like:-

* Japan * China * India * Egypt

These have a vast cultural history for possessing hidden powers. Japan is a well built nation but relies on their cultural history for their day to day life. Japan have various ways of worshipping their religion as they believe in goddess like beings as they have many mythical features in their history. India is one of the main countries on the globe that has very high cultural and spiritual beliefs. Their society is based round one of the most religious cultures on the globe. They worship many different beings and gods. Their religion is made up of 80% Hindu, 11% Muslim with Sikh, Christian and Buddhist minorities.

Egypt is also another religious believing country as it incorporates their past however many thousand years of history. Their main beliefs lie within their own history. Their museums come as second to none as they contain treasures from thousands of years ago. Mummies are what they keep best as the Egyptians berry their most rich and powerful leaders to rest in piece with their own treasures they have gain during their mortal existence.

For those in their history who were servants of the rich and made some of the gravest errors during their life’s were to have their organs extracted alive and be mummified. One this process was done they wrapped them up in bandages and seal them in a sarcoffigace cursed and to never see the light of day again. This is the main attraction that brings people from all over the world to see these well re-knowned treasures.

Man-Made Features

These are very dense across the world as there are no destinations that have all natural features. For this beaches are a prime example as they are a big feature in the world created by man. Some examples of these man-made features are located in the Canaries which are a big help to the World-wide tourist economy. They have had man-made features built because of the fact that most of their land is built on volcanic ash which burns from most of the volcano’s located on the 5 different islands.

The most active of which is Lanzarote which has had the main stretch of beach-line made out of its current state with imports of sand from other nations which is then put on the volcanic ashes/sand to make the beach look more inviting as black ash/sand doesn’t appeal to very many people. The European Continent is the only one which has had to have major development in its tourism industries which is also one of the main reasons why tourism demand for Europe has increased. The USA has no need to have any man-made features as it has the geographical layout and climate to sustain a beach environment at all seasons.

Information and Advice

Health Requirements/Food and Drink

The health requirements to various countries vary a great deal. Here are some countries where you don’t need a great of amount of vaccination:-

* Canada in which rabies is currently present, vaccinate before arrival

* USA is currently free from all major outbreaks

* Also in the UK there is no current outbreak of any virus

In other countries where you need to be vaccinated against all major types of contractual viruses, this means that you will have to have these about a week or two before your departure. Here are some countries that you must follow these in to avoid infection:-

* Cuba where a typhoid and polio outbreak can be quite common

* Morocco it is advisable to drink only their bottled water which is mainly available through many local groceries

* Saudi Arabia is classed as not having suitable water as they believe that it is contaminated, Malaria is another outbreak that can occur a great deal as a result of seasonal changes to the climate.

* India is one of the few countries in the world in which inoculation must be adhered to. The following vaccinations are most certainly required:-

* Yellow Fever

* Cholera

* Typhoid & Polio

* Malaria

* To be careful on consumption of food and drink.

Passport/Visa Requirements

The passport and visa requirements for various countries vary a great deal some will accept a minimum amount of paperwork and some will ask for a large amount of paperwork. Here are some countries where a minimum amount of paperwork is required:-

* United Kingdom we only ask other EU citizens with a national ID card for tourist stays not exceeding three months

* Turkmenistan only require a passport and visa for the stay and don’t require to see a return ticket

* As with Turkmenistan you only require a passport and visa for the visit to Australia

* In Austria most international tourists only need a full country passport and a visa to stay in the country

* Bangladesh is another country where you only need your passport, visa but also the immigration services need to see evidence of a return ticket

* Belarus is one of the other countries that you only need the same sort of paperwork as Bangladesh.

For countries where you need a great deal of paperwork in order to obtain entry are:-

* In Bolivia a passport is required as well as many different types of visa’s for the remaining world population and a return ticket is also required

* Bonaire which is one of the smallest islands in the world has very strict passport and visa entry requirements. Their visa requirements are the most comprehensive kind as they require different types of visa’s from the different nationalities in the world as well as a return ticket for the return journey as they can only give tourist so long in the UK as they can only stay for up to three months

* In Brunei a strict regime is once again required as they also have a different visa requirement for the different nationalities and also require a return ticket upon entry to the country so that they can see when you are returning back to home countries.

Clothing

This mainly depends on where you are going on holiday as there are different weather conditions in all different countries and weather is unpredictable in this day and age. On any holiday it is always best to take one item of warm wrappings just in-case the climate fluctuates on a daily basis. This could be the case in the Mediterranean holiday spots where the climate is constantly changing all the time.

Shopping

Shopping is an important part of tourism not only from the inhabitants but from the tourist visiting the city/town. New York City is one of the most famous cities for shopping, with its huge department stores including Macy’s and there is also fashionable 5th Avenue with its world-wide fashion designers with their innovative clothing and fashion designs. These range from:-

* Versace V2 * Gucci/Gucci Timepeices * Calvin Klein * Tommy Hilfiger

* Dolce & Gabbana * DKNY/Donna Karen * Prada * Richmond

To name a few. These are an important part of shopping in New York as they require these shops to cater for the rich and heavy spenders. Tourist just come to these shops just to look at them as they don’t usually have time to spend all of their money in one outlet.

Places of Interest

The Taj Mahal in Agra is one of the most famous buildings visited in the world. This monument constructed years ago for a special wife who died during giving birth but made sure that the building would certainly come in useful again. The builder was later imprisoned by his own son in another famous building in India.

The Sydney Opera House which has a distinct shape on the bay of the Pacific Ocean. This house provides suitable theatrical performances and has many other uses for its property. This building is generally known by people for being the biggest opera house in the world.

New York has many places of interest for instance the Empire States Building which attracts over 2.5 million people per year with its astounding hovering over NYC. Although the building is mainly used by businesses it is still able to attract this amount of people to its vast size.

Currency/Exchange Rate

At the moment currency is very weak against the British pound as our economy is growing quickly somewhat much quicker than some of our allied countries. The Pound against the dollar is very strong because of huge amounts of exports at a large cost to the receiver of these exports. For a start because we have very few imports at the current moment we are able to export many of our products to foreign and international nations to make huge sums of profit for the UK. At the moment the UK is expanding so rapidly that we have taken the lead in developing our nation even further.

The US is very strict about currency exchange. For a start hotels do not, as a rule, exchange currency and only a few major banks will exchange foreign currency, which is why it is so advisable to arrive with US dollars on your visit to the USA.

Credit cards are a big thing in the US banking systems. Most major credit cards are accepted throughout the USA, including the following:-

* Diners Club * American Express * MasterCard * Visa

It is normally advisable to check with credit cards merchants before taking these cards away with you to the USA. Visitors to the USA are normally advised to carry at least one major credit card, as it is common to request pre-payment for hotel rooms and car hire when payment is not by credit card.

Travellers cheques are widely accepted in hotels, stores and restaurants, providing they are US dollars traveller cheques. Sterling travellers cheques are not acceptable. American Express travellers cheques are often accepted as cash, preferably in denominations of $10 or $20 US dollar notes. It should be noted that many banks do not have the facility to encash travellers cheques as the US banking system differs greatly from that of the UK and those are likely to charge a high commission. One or in some cases two items of Id may be required. American Express travellers cheques are normally often accepted without commission charges at the following places:-

* Banc One 1500 locations * First Union National Bank 2300 locations

* Fleet/Norstar/Natwest 1090 locations * NationsBank 1600 locations

* Wells Fargo Bank/ First Interstate Bank 1459 locations

The exchange rate at the end of the last millennia these were the last average figures of exchange for the pound.

Date Jan 96 Sept 96 May 97 Aug. 97

1 Pound= 1.55 1.56 1.64 1.61 =Dollar Equivalent

The US has a currency restriction, as there are no limits on the import or export of either foreign or local currency. However amounts in excess of $10,000 US Dollars or equivalent including (including ‘bearer bonds’) must be registered with US Customs on Form 4790. All gold coins and any quantity of gold must be declared before export.

Driving Regulations

An international drivers permit is recommended, although it is not legally required. A full national driving license is required by the US and is guaranteed for upto one year. All tourists intending to rent or dives cars and motorhomes in the USA are strongly advised to ensure that the insurance policy covers their total requirements, covering all drivers and passengers against injury or accidental death. A yellow non-resident, interstate liability insurance card which acts as evidence of financial responsibility is available through motor insurance agents.

The traffic is very different from in the UK. Traffic drives on the right. Speed limits usually 55mph on motorways, but varies from state to state. Speed limits are clearly indicated along highways and are strictly enforced, with heavy fines imposed. Note that it is illegal to pass a school bus that has stopped to unload its passengers and all vehicles must stop until the bus has moved back into the traffic stream. It is also illegal not to have their licenses immediately to hand. If stopped do not attempt to pay a driving fine on the spot as it may be interpreted as an attempt to bribe. There are extremely tough laws against drinking and driving throughout the USA. These laws are strictly enforced in every state of the USA.

Information can be found on the above heading Information and Advice can be found in the following sources:-

* World tourism guide endorsed by ABTA and ATOL

* Travel agents can provide information from their own knowledge

* Tour operators and their season brochures

* Foreign Embassies can be used to get information on the legal system of a destination for a tourist

* Libraries can provide detailed information on everything you will need to know about your chosen destination.

Main Types of Customers and Reasons for Visiting

Cost

For families they can get cheap holidays where the children can travel free or for a reduced rate. Most travel agents when the summer months are coming area able to provide free child places to encourage parents to take the whole family on holiday. Travel agents will normally only give these free places if there are more than one full paying adult. These free places are normally given at the following travel agents:-

* Lunn Poly * Thomas Cook * Worldchoice * Travel Express

* First Choice * Going Places

Exotic Holidays are another mean of costs as the more exotic the holiday the more it will cost. Trip to like the Seychelles can cost anything from about 899 pounds and range up to over 2500 pounds for two weeks.

Accessibility

People who have special needs and/or are disabled will have special needs for them. Ground floor accommodation is one of the most important especially if there are no lifts to gain access to higher parts of the hotel. Also when people go away on holiday it is important for them to be able to gain access to all areas of a tourist attraction so that they can enjoy their visit to the attraction. To start with a disabled person going to visit a shopping attraction must be able to get around on all levels of a shopping centre. To start with they would have to have lifts to gain access to all areas of the centre and disabled toilets nearby to all areas.

Location

The location of a major tourist attraction is very important as tourists may only want to stay locally. Going to New York City has very good locations for all major attractions as they have a vast transport system in getting around which is the underground which runs from one end of New York to the other.

This also goes from one side of New York to the other so that all major routes are covered in the underground system. Although this is an effective system tourist I think would prefer to use the Yellow Cab Services in New York as you would see the other sights of New York on your way round which would give tourists a better overview of the city as they are taxied to their destination.

Education

Groups of children would be the best example for a skiing holiday. As in our school every year a ski trip takes about 50 pupils and teachers to a foreign ski resort in Europe or the USA. In the year 2000 the school took a group to the French resort Val Thorens which there was time for students who can’t ski can learn with their qualified ski instructors. This was ideal for these students as they would learn all the new skills of skiing.

Special Interest

These special interests can place anything or anywhere from the Taj Mahal in Agra is one of the most famous buildings visited in the world. This monument will attract many peoples interest and place a lot of interest on one building this monument constructed years ago for a special wife who died during giving birth but made sure that the building would certainly come in useful again.

The Sydney Opera House which has a distinct shape on the bay of the Pacific Ocean. This house provides suitable theatrical performances and has many other uses for its property. This building is generally known by people for being the biggest opera house in the world.

Visiting Friends and Relatives

People visiting friends and family are more likely to not look at any of the reasons for people going to these tourist destinations. Many people with families will look at spending time with their families will be spent:-

* shopping

* events

These are mainly the two most important things to do whilst spending time with family. Families destinations can range from London to NYC to Australia where distant relative and close relatives will live.

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