U.S. Democracy Promotion Policy In The Middle East Essay

This papers reviews the United States Policy in the Middle East part. and its attitude towards the assorted Islamic motions in the part.

The papers farther investigates the function of the U. S. policy in the Arab states. like Egypt. Jordan and Morocco. President Bush and his disposal has viewed the democracy publicity policy in the Middle East as a national security policy.

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confirming that larger political autonomy can weaken the military forces of Islamic extremism and propaganda.As the propaganda of advancing democracy in the Middle East has gained impulse. the U. S. Secretary of State. Condoleezza Rice.

and her policy shapers have faced a major obstructor of how should United States refer to the challenges that the Islamic motions are presenting against the United States. In mention to these issues many experts have questioned the intervention of United States itself within the Middle East part. and its actions of exercising force per unit area over the authoritiess to step into a democratic system.Many of the powerful Islamic groups have openly opposed the United States and its policies amongst these are business of Iraq. support to Israel.

and the presence of the United States Military in the Persian Gulf. OVERVIEW The onslaught on World Trade Centre on September 11. 2001. has provoked United States to advance democracy in the Region which is a menace to the United States.

Besides his justification for the invasion of Iraq. the Bush Administration has been following the runs closely as an issue of national security policy for the United States.The Secretary of State. Condoleezza Rice states that a higher degree of political freedom and constitution of democracy in this part will undersell the Islamic forces that are against the United States.

On the other manus. with changeless sectarian aggression in Iraq and Arab government unfalteringly ingrained in influence. this scheme has come under turning review. Many of the experts have inquiries this scheme and the U. S. capableness to convey about the societal alterations the part. Yet.

in malice of ongoing uncertainnesss over U. S.honestness. astuteness of promise. and steadiness on the democratisation topic. the monolithic concentration that Middle East or Arab states have received since the September 11th terrorist onslaughts is thought by many skeptics and protagonists the same. to hold echoed from corner to corner of the Arab universe.

lighting statements. anti-government looks. and regime controlled vote to comfort internal and external demands for democratisation.

With all these issues. there stand some large inquiries before the United States Policy shapers: Is it right for the U. S.to exercise force per unit area on the Arab part to reconstruct democracy. while cognizing the facts that the non broad Islamic groups will profit from regional democratisation? Harmonizing to many experts.

the political parties in the part oppose the U. S. policies and moreover the entry of Shiite Muslim community in parts like Iraq.

and Hamas. has accidentally reinforced Islamist opposition actions. preponderantly hawkish 1s.

Some of these broad political parties are believed to be playing a gray function. which means that these parties posses a limited function in political relations.On the other manus. the province of personal businesss differs across the Arab part. and democracy indorsement is a many-sided topic with a batch of exceeding jobs. chiefly while researching Islamism.

This paper looks at how United States program to advance democracy in the part will organize with the political truth on the land in Arab states and lifts up the subsequent inquiries: Who are the Islamists? Are such groups’ rightful independent organisations or rebellious fundamentalists in screen? To what grade are Islamists conflicting to U. S. policy?Should the United States take on with non violent Islamist groups. either easy or compensate away? Make non-violent Islamist groups still greets or agree to conversation with the United States or would such move harm the repute of these groups amid their followings? Is it right to lawfully accept these Islamic groups? Are U.

S. democratisation labours intended to advance options to Islamists? MOROCCO Long before the terrorist onslaughts on the World trade Centre on September 11. Maroc was Centre of focal point for experts as it showed a figure of positive deductions for the puting up of a democratic authorities in the state.

Over the old ages. the state has shown important betterments in this way and introduced a figure of broad procedure within its system. with the aid of a broad and moderate political Islamic party – the Parti de Justice et Developement ( Islamist Justice and Development Party or PJD ) . The party took over the parliament of Morocco after winning the elections in 1997 and 2002. The state is under the King’s regulation. and the King ahs accepted some Islamic groups in the parliament that do non dispute the authorization of the King. This relationship between the PJD and the Palace has at times been tough and easy.

This confederation has brought about a figure of benefits in the state. This has helped the state to choose way of inclusion instead than exclusion for the non broad Islamic groups to remain off from terrorist act. The proliferation of Jihadist and other terrorist groups has significantly decreased by the combined attempts of the Palace and PJD. At the same clip. there besides exists an economic ground to let the Islamic groups into the political phase. Since Morocco is barren of any sort of natural resources like oil and for trade installations.

the state to a great extent depends upon the aid of western states like United States and Europe.In exchange for trade and assistance. given to Morocco. U. S. has been invariably pressing it for brining in democracy in the state. Other than PJD. there are some other Islamic group that are present in the state.

However. there is merely one more group that has been identified as good known after PJD. A 2nd group. known as Al-Adl wal-Ihsan or Justice and Charity ( JCO ) . is the one which does non accepts the regulation of the Palace.

JCO has a wider popularity within the grassroots degrees of the state while PJD is more celebrated in urban countries. U. S. POLICY VIS-A-VIS MOROCCO The U. S.and Morocco relationship is multifaceted.

in which publicity of democracy is the chief precedence for the U. S. policy shapers. For long Morocco has partnered United States in advancing its democratic attempts in North Africa and other Arab states. After the World trade centre onslaught. the United States has taken a figure of concrete stairss to concrete its relationship with the state. United States under the Bush Administration has stepped up its military and fiscal assistance.

and set up a free trade understanding. Morocco is entitled for funding under the Bush Administration’s fresh foreign assistance strategy. the Millennium Challenge Account.“In computation. Morocco has been used as a trial instance for the Administration’s other new reform plan.

the State Department’s Middle East Partnership Initiative ( MEPI ) . All told. concern that deteriorating socio-economic conditions in Morocco could take to increased radicalism has led to a figure of new activities and increased U. S. support for instruction.

wellness attention. women’s rights. occupation creative activity. and structural readjustment plans. all of which have been welcomed by the Moroccan government” . ( CSIS. March 2006.

op. cit. )The United States has launched several plans in which the PJD plays an active function. At the same clip. the Bush Administration plays an of import function in the domestic political relations of the state and both the PJD and U. S.

acknowledge such attempts. Harmonizing to a recent pole. it was shown that the PJD was supported by 47 % of the ballots of the state. which signals the turning strength of the party on democratic political relations. Experts besides noticed that ab initio PLD was loath in reacting to the U. S enterprise.

but easy the party has got into footings with the United States policies in the part.Harmonizing to Condoleezza Rice. at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. “Morocco’s PJD clearly has a legitimate function to play in Morocco’s electoral political relations. I besides think it is normal for the U. S. authorities to develop and keep contacts with a broad assortment of legitimate political histrions in a state. including those that may non wish some elements of U.

S. foreign policy. ” ( Asia Times Online.

July 15. 2005 ) The Bush disposal stresses over good and common dealingss with the PJD. instead than disregarding it. Originating U. S.

response further in a positive way. PJD has besides shown avidity to transport the duologue farther. and besides initiated a conference in Morocco. “American Decision Making and its Impact on the Moroccan-American Relations” . When asked about the increasing function of the U. S. policy shapers in Morocco. PJD interpreter.

Othmani said. “We can non deny the function of external factors. but the reforms have non been merely imposed from outside… . The U. S. disposal can non accomplish its ends at our disbursal. and should seek to construct trust and place common involvements through a concerted duologue.” ( Interview with Saad Eddin Al Othmani.

leader of Morocco’s Party of Justice and Development. ” Arab Reform Bulletin. Published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. December 2005. Volume 3.

Publish 10 ) . There are some experts who believe that PJD masks its true purposes under a non violent attack. These people do non hold with the ways of the Bush Administration sing Morocco. saying that the chief end of these Islamic groups is to eventually set up a non democratic authorities which is based on Sharia Islamic jurisprudence.Dr. Robert Satloff. Executive Director of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy.

stresses over the fact that most of the critics challenge the U. S. policy and say that the Bush Administration should be merely paying attending on advancing democratic options to Islamists. U. S. policy shapers on the other manus say that they are ne’er being partial to the Islamic groups like PJD and wish to handle all the Islamic groups in the state at the same degree. For its portion.

the Maroc authorities clip and once more cautiousnesss the U. S.policy shapers and experts working on the part that non-violent Islamists in Morocco analyze electoral political relations as a means to come to power and set up a theocracy in the state. ROLE OF CONGRESS The Congress has been promoting of the Bush Administration’s labours to do stronger ties with Morocco. The parliament gave permission to the free trade understanding ( FTA ) with Morocco ( P. L. 108-302 ) on August 17.

2004. This understanding came into consequence from January 1. 2006. Besides.

the Congress has supported at all times. the increasing sums of fiscal assistance to Morocco.This assistance helps the state fight the increasing menaces of terrorist act.

and other societal menaces that tend to corrupt the attempts. During the Financial twelvemonth. 2006.

the province of Morocco received $ 10. 890 million as Economic Support Fundss ( ESF ) . $ 12. 375 million for Foreign Military Financing ( FMF ) .

$ 8. 217 million in Development Assistance ( DA ) . and $ 1.

856 million for International Military Education and Training ( IMET ) . For FY2007. the Administration has requested $ 18 million in ESF. $ 12. 5 million in FMF. $ 5.

4 million for DA. and $ 1.975 million for IMET. ( CRS Report RL33003. United arab republic: Background and U.

S. Relations. by Jeremy M.

Sharp. ) EGYPT The chance that the non broad Islamic groups pose for United States is much more of import with respects to the United States and Egypt relationship than the Morocco association. The Government of Egypt is at peace with the province of Israel since 1979. and is am of import strategic spouse for the United States in the part.

Egypt has received the largest sums of financess from United States amongst the Arab states until U. S. invaded Iraq.Egypt has been closely interacting with the Bush Administration on assorted issues like military. foreign developments.

and terrorist act issues that pose menace in the part. Egyptian President Mubarak has shaped himself as a consistent and trust worthy middleman in the Palestinian-Israeli struggle. Some political experts consider that Egypt’s deliberate significance has augmented in position of the fact that the Hamas had risen to power in 2006.

and as it is obvious that states like Egypt. Israel. and the United States all portion a cosmopolitan significance in keeping Hamas.On the other manus.

the Egyptian disposal has been leery of U. S. ways for political restructuring because the Egyptian Administration does non wants the rebellion of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood ( MB ) . which is the most powerful resistance group in Egypt and opposes the United States policies. U. S.

POLICY VIS-A-VIS EGYPT U. S. policy shapers have used a figure of political and diplomatic tools to travel frontward with the reforms in Egypt. U. S.Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice had late made a figure of visits to the state and has been verbal refering the call for betterment at the American University in Cairo and at the same clip besides held meetings with political militants. The United States besides has expanded its foreign assistance and democracy scheduling activities in Egypt.

In 2005. the State Department’s Middle East Partnership Initiative ( MEPI ) commenced apportioning little grants straight to NGOs in Egypt so as give support to the secular political militants and human rights groups. peculiarly during the presidential and parliamentary election seasons.

The United States compliments the Egyptian government’s wishes non to allow illicit Islamist association. such as the Muslim Brotherhood. to publically take portion in U. S supported betterment actions in Egypt or incorporate widespread associates with U. S.

representatives in Cairo. Harmonizing to the U. S. Foreign Department in Egypt.

it will non cover directly with the illegal associations. since they are banned under Egyptian jurisprudence. but the members of these groups are non barred from meetings between U. S. functionaries. Harmonizing to J.Scott Carpenter.

Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near East Affairs at the U. S. State Department. “There is acknowledgment that there are a figure of folks who have been elected to Parliament. and they are at that place. This is an issue for Egyptian society to cover with it. it’s non something for us needfully to affect ourselves with. ” At the terminal.

while many of the experts promote the policies laid down by the Bush Administration for Egypt. some of them rede a restrain since the Egyptian governments have themselves forced the U. S.to choose between the national Democratic Party and the Muslim brotherhood. Therefore.

the solution to this issue is that the U. S. should coerce the Egyptian authorities to give some infinite for negotiations between the Islamists and secularists. Such a conversation among Egyptians themselves is where solutions lie. ROLE OF CONGRESS The Congress provides equal financess to Egypt for the assorted reforms which promote democracy I n some manner or the other.

Some of the plans are – partnership enterprises. which call for a combined attempt of the U. S and the Egypt on this issue.Other plans include the up-lift of the society. advancing little independent endeavors within the community. instruction. women’s rights and increased political rights. Meantime.

the U. S. has set up a commission which looks that the allotment of financess is happening in the right way. In treatment statement address associated with P. L.

108-447. the fiscal twelvemonth 2005 Consolidated Appropriations Act. specified that the money that is supposed to be spent on democracy and administration activities is non subjected to any sort of anterior blessing by the authorities of Egypt.In add-on.

the statement predetermined that non less than 50 per centum of the financess that are allocated for the Restoration of democracy in the state. are allocated to NGO’s so that the civil construction of the state gets strengthened thereby increasing more civil engagement in the political and electoral procedure of the state. CONCLUSION The democratic elections that were performed under the force per unit area exerted by United States in Iraq. Egypt. Morocco and Palestine.

have resulted in opposite actions by beef uping the political places of the Islamic groups that are declining to cast force and anti U.S. Policies. Furthermore the engagement of some broad Islamic groups in these democratic elections by the permission of the U. S. Policy shapers raises the inquiry that whether these groups are really broad or basicss? Is it in the favour of Unites States to let these Islamic groups to be a portion of the elections? What reaction will the followings of these broad Islamic groups show after they see that the group is welcoming duologues with Unites States? While experts are keenly looking over the whole affair. and in which way the U. S.

policy should head. Condoleezza Rice is seeking to be more crystalline in dealingss with the Islamic groups in the part. The Bush Administration is taking acute involvement in the allotment of financess to the groups that are distributed for the publicity of democracy plans and is trusting that the state of affairs gets better for United States.Mentions1.

Wiktorowicz. Quintan. Islamic Activism. A Social Movement Theory Approach. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

2004. p. 25.

2. U. S. State Department’s Country Reports on Terrorism and Patters of Global Terrorism 2005. Available at [ hypertext transfer protocol: //www. province. gov/documents/organization/65472. pdf ] .

3. Martin Kramer. “Islam vs. Democracy. ” Commentary. January 1993.

pp. 35-42. 4. “Should the United States Support Islamists? ” Program Brief. Nixon Center. October 24.

2005. 5. The Mideast. the Third Way is a Myth. ” Washington Post. February 17.

2006. 6. “Islamists at the Ballot Box. Findingss from Egypt. Jordan. Kuwait. and Turkey.

” Judy Barsalou. U. S.

Institute for Peace Special Report 144. July 2005. 7. In Support of Arab Democracy: Why and How. ” Council on Foreign Relations Independent Task Force Report No.

54. Madeline K. Albright and Vin Weber Co-Chairs. 2005.


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