The Oxford English Dictionary defines a UFO as “An unidentified winging object ; a ‘flying saucer’ . ” The word was foremost used in print by Donald Keyhoe in 1953. [ 1 ] The acronym “UFO” was coined by Capt. Edward J. Ruppelt. who headed Project Blue Book. so the USAF’s functionary probe of UFOs. He wrote. “Obviously the term ‘flying saucer’ is misdirecting when applied to objects of every imaginable form and public presentation. For this ground the military prefers the more general. if less colorful. name: unidentified winging objects. UFO ( marked Yoo-foe ) for short. ” [ 2 ] Other phrases that were used officially and that predate the UFO acronym include “flying flapjack” . “flying disc” . “unexplained winging discs” . “unidentifiable winging object” . and “flying saucer” . [ 3 ] [ 4 ] The phrase “flying saucer” had gained widespread attending after the summer of 1947.
On June 24. a civilian pilot named Kenneth Arnold reported seeing nine objects winging in formation near Mount Rainer. Arnold timed the sighting and estimated the velocity of phonograph record to be over 1. 000 miles per hour. He described their motion like “a disk skipped across H2O. ” taking to newspaper histories of “flying saucers” . ( see Kenneth Arnold UFO spying for inside informations ) . In popular use the term UFO came to be used to mention to alien ballistic capsule. [ 5 ] and because of the populace and media ridicule associated with the subject. some research workers prefer to utilize such footings as unidentified aerial phenomenon ( or UAP ) or anomalous phenomena. as in the rubric of the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena or NARCAP. [ 6 ] The tantamount acronym for UFO in Spanish. Portuguese. French. and Italian is OVNI ( Objeto Volador No Identificado. Objeto Voador Nao Identificado. Objet volant non identifie or Oggetto Volante Non Identificato ) . pronounced as one word ( ov-nee ) . Surveies
Surveies have established that the bulk of UFO observations are misidentified conventional objects or natural phenomena—most normally aircraft. balloons. noctilucent clouds. nacreous clouds. or astronomical objects such as meteors or bright planets with a little per centum even being frauds. [ 7 ] After excepting wrong studies. nevertheless. most research workers have acknowledged that between 5 % and 20 % of reported sightings remain unexplained. and hence can be classified as unidentified in the strictest sense. Many studies have been made by such trained perceivers as pilots. constabulary. and the armed forces ; some have involved coincident radio detection and ranging trailing and ocular histories. [ 8 ] Advocates of the extraterrestrial hypothesis suggest that these unexplained studies are of foreign ballistic capsule. though assorted other hypotheses have been proposed. While Unidentified flying objects have been the topic of extended probe by assorted authoritiess and although some scientists support the extraterrestrial hypothesis. few scientific documents about Unidentified flying objects have been published in peer-reviewed diaries. [ 9 ]
There has been some argument in the scientific community about whether any scientific probe into UFO sightings is warranted. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ] The nothingness left by the deficiency of institutional scientific survey has given rise to independent research workers and groups. including NICAP ( the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena ) in the mid-20th century and. more late. MUFON ( Mutual UFO Network ) [ 17 ] and CUFOS ( Center for UFO Studies ) . [ 18 ] The term “Ufology” is used to depict the corporate attempts of those who study studies and associated grounds of unidentified winging objects. Harmonizing to MUFON. as of 2011 the figure of UFO studies to their worldwide offices has increased by 67 % from the old three old ages and now averages around 500 reported sightings per month. [ 19 ] Unidentified flying objects have become a relevant subject in modern civilization. [ 20 ] and the societal phenomena have been the topic of academic research in sociology and psychological science. [ 9 ] Early history
Unexplained aerial observations have been reported throughout history. Some were undoubtedly astronomical in nature: comets. bright meteors. one or more of the five planets that can be seen with the bare oculus. planetal concurrences. or atmospheric optical phenomena such as mock suns and biconvex clouds. An illustration is Halley’s Comet. which was recorded foremost by Chinese uranologists in 240 BC and perchance every bit early as 467 BC. Such sightings throughout history frequently were treated as supernatural omens. angels. or other spiritual portents. Some current-day UFO research workers have noticed similarities between some spiritual symbols in mediaeval pictures and UFO studies [ 21 ] though the canonical and symbolic character of such images is documented by art historiographers puting more conventional spiritual readings on such images. [ 22 ] On January 25. 1878. The Denison Daily News noted that John Martin. a local husbandman. had reported seeing a big. dark. round object resembling a balloon winging “at fantastic velocity. ”
Martin. harmonizing to the newspaper history. said it appeared to be about the size of a disk. the first known usage of the word “saucer” in association with a UFO. [ 23 ] On February 28. 1904. there was a sighting by three crew members on the USS Supply 300 stat mis west of San Francisco. reported by Lt. Frank Schofield. subsequently to go Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Battle Fleet. Schofield wrote of three bright ruddy elliptic and round objects winging in echelon formation that approached beneath the cloud bed. so changed class and “soared” above the clouds. going straight off from the Earth after two to three proceedingss. The largest had an evident size of about six Suns. he said. [ 24 ] The three earliest known pilot UFO sightings. of 1. 305 similar sitings cataloged by NARCAP. took topographic point in 1916 and 1926. On January 31. 1916. a UK pilot near Rochford reported a row of visible radiations. resembling lit Windowss on a railroad passenger car. that rose and disappeared.
In January 1926 a pilot reported six “flying manhole covers” between Wichita. Kansas. and Colorado Springs. Colorado. In late September 1926 an airmail pilot over Nevada said he had been forced to set down by a immense. wingless. cylindrical object. [ 25 ] On August 5. 1926. while going in the Humboldt Mountains of Tibet’s Kokonor part. Russian adventurer Nicholas Roerich reported. members of his expedition saw “something large and glistening reflecting the Sun. like a immense ellipse traveling at great velocity. Traversing our cantonment the thing changed in its way from south to southwest. And we saw how it disappeared in the intense blue sky. We even had clip to take our field spectacless and saw rather clearly an egg-shaped signifier with glistening surface. one side of which was brilliant from the Sun. ” [ 26 ] Another description by Roerich was of a “shiny organic structure winging from north to south. Field spectacless are at manus. It is a immense organic structure. One side glows in the Sun. It is egg-shaped in form. Then it someway turns in another way and disappears in the sou’-west. ” [ 27 ]
In the Pacific and European theaters during World War II. “foo-fighters” ( metallic domains. balls of visible radiation and other forms that followed aircraft ) were reported and on juncture photographed by Allied and Axis pilots. Some proposed Allied accounts at the clip included St. Elmo’s Fire. the planet Venus. hallucinations from O want. or German secret arms. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] On February 25. 1942. U. S. Army perceivers reported unidentified aircraft both visually and on radio detection and ranging over the Los Angeles. California. part. Antiaircraft heavy weapon was fired at what were presumed to be Nipponese planes. No readily evident account was offered. though some functionaries dismissed the studies of aircraft as being triggered by anxiousnesss over expected Nipponese air onslaughts on California. However. Army Chief of Staff Gen. George C. Marshall and Secretary of War Henry Stimson insisted that existent aircraft were involved.
The incident subsequently became known as the Battle of Los Angeles. or the West seashore air foray. In 1946 more than 2. 000 studies were collected. chiefly by the Swedish military. of unidentified aerial objects over the Norse states. along with stray studies from France. Portugal. Italy and Greece. The objects were referred to as “Russian hail” and subsequently as “ghost rockets” because it was thought that the cryptic objects were perchance Russian trials of captured German V1 or V2 projectiles. Although most were thought to be such natural phenomena as meteors. more than 200 were tracked on radio detection and ranging by the Swedish military and deemed to be “real physical objects. ” In a 1948 top secret papers. Swedish governments advised the USAF Europe that some of their research workers believed these trade to be extraterrestrial in beginning. Probes
Unidentified flying objects have been capable to probes over the old ages that varied widely in range and scientific asperity. Governments or independent faculty members in the United States. Canada. the United Kingdom. Japan. Peru. France. Belgium. Sweden. Brazil. Chile. Uruguay. Mexico. Spain. and the Soviet Union are known to hold investigated UFO studies at assorted times. Among the best known authorities surveies are the shade projectiles probe by the Swedish military ( 1946–1947 ) . Undertaking Blue Book. antecedently Project Sign and Project Grudge. conducted by the United States Air Force from 1947 until 1969. the secret U. S. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle probe into green bolides ( 1948–1951 ) . the secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report # 14 [ 30 ] by the Battelle Memorial Institute. and Brazilian Air Force Operation Saucer ( 1977 ) . France has had an on-going probe ( GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN ) within its infinite bureau CNES since 1977 ; the authorities of Uruguay has had a similar probe since 1989. Undertaking Sign
Project Sign in 1948 produced a extremely classified determination ( see Estimate of the Situation ) that the best Unidentified flying object studies likely had an extraterrestrial account ; the private but high-ranking Gallic COMETA survey of 1999 reached a similar decision. A top secret Swedish military sentiment given to the USAF in 1948 stated that some of their analysts believed that the 1946 shade projectiles and subsequently winging disks had extraterrestrial beginnings. ( see Ghost projectiles for papers ) . In 1954 German projectile scientist Hermann Oberth revealed that an internal West German authorities probe. which he headed. had arrived at an extraterrestrial decision. but this survey was ne’er made populace. Undertaking Magnet
Classified. internal studies by the Canadian Project Magnet in 1952 and 1953 besides assigned high chance to extraterrestrial beginnings. Publicly. nevertheless. neither Project Magnet nor subsequently Canadian defence surveies of all time stated such a decision. Undertaking Grudge
Project Sign was dismantled and became Project Grudge at the terminal of 1948. Angered by the low quality of probes by Grudge. the Air Force Director of Intelligence reorganized it as Project Blue Book in late 1951. puting Ruppelt in charge. Blue Book closed down in 1970. utilizing the Condon Commission’s negative decision as a principle. therefore stoping official Air Force UFO probes. However. a 1969 USAF papers. known as the Bolender memo. along with ulterior authorities paperss. revealed that non-public U. S. authorities UFO probes continued after 1970.
The Bollender memo foremost stated that “reports of unidentified winging objects that could impact national security. . . are non portion of the Blue Book system. ” bespeaking that more serious UFO incidents already were handled outside the public Blue Book probe. The memo so added. “reports of UFOs which could impact national security would go on to be handled through the standard Air Force processs designed for this intent. ” [ 31 ] In add-on. in the late sixtiess a chapter on Unidentified flying objects in the Space Sciences class at the U. S. Air Force Academy gave serious consideration to possible extraterrestrial beginnings. When word of the course of study became public. the Air Force in 1970 issued a statement to the consequence that the book was outdated and that plebes alternatively were being informed of the Condon report’s negative decision. [ 32 ] USAF Regulation 200-2
Air Force Regulation 200-2. [ 33 ] issued in 1953 and 1954. defined an Unidentified Flying Object ( “UFOB” ) as “any airborne object which by public presentation. aerodynamic features. or unusual characteristics. does non conform to any soon known aircraft or missile type. or which can non be positively identified as a familiar object. ” The ordinance besides said UFOBs were to be investigated as a “possible menace to the security of the United States” and “to find proficient facets involved. ” The ordinance went on to state that “it is allowable to inform intelligence media representatives on UFOB’s when the object is positively identified as a familiar object. ” but added: “For those objects which are non interpretable. merely the fact that ATIC [ Air Technical Intelligence Center ] will analyse the information is worthy of release. due to many terra incognitas involved. ” [ 34 ] [ 35 ] Project Bluebook
J. Allen Hynek. a trained uranologist who served as a scientific adviser for Project Bluebook. was ab initio disbelieving of UFO studies. but finally came to the decision that many of them could non be satisfactorily explained and was extremely critical of what he described as “the chevalier neglect by Project Blue Book of the rules of scientific probe. ” [ 36 ] Leaving authorities work. he founded the in private funded Center for UFO Studies. to whose work he devoted the remainder of his life. Other private groups analyzing the phenomenon include the Mutual UFO Network. a grass roots organisation whose investigator’s handbooks travel into great item on the certification of alleged UFO sightings. Like Hynek. Jacques Vallee. a scientist and outstanding UFO research worker. has pointed to what he believes is the scientific lack of most UFO research. including authorities surveies. He complains of the mythology and cultism frequently associated with the phenomenon. but alleges that several hundred professional scientists—a group both he and Hyneck have termed “the unseeable college”—continue to analyze UFOs in private. [ 20 ] Scientific surveies
The survey of UFOs has received small support in mainstream scientific literature. Official surveies ended in the U. S. in December 1969. following the statement by the authorities scientist Edward Condon that farther survey of Unidentified flying objects could non be justified on evidences of scientific promotion. [ 12 ] The Condon study and its decisions were endorsed by the National Academy of Scientists. of which Condon was a member. On the other manus. a scientific reappraisal by the UFO subcommittee of the AIAA disagreed with Condon’s decision. observing that at least 30 per centum of the instances studied remained unexplained and that scientific benefit might be gained by continued survey. Critics argue that all UFO grounds is anecdotal [ 37 ] and can be explained as matter-of-fact natural phenomena. Defenders of UFO research counter that cognition of experimental informations. other than what is reported in the popular media. is limited in the scientific community and that farther survey is needed. [ 20 ] [ 38 ] No official authorities probe has of all time publically concluded that Unidentified flying objects are indisputably existent. physical objects. extraterrestrial in beginning. or of concern to national defence.
These same negative decisions besides have been found in surveies that were extremely classified for many old ages. such as the UK’s Flying Saucer Working Party. Project Condign. the US CIA-sponsored Robertson Panel. the US military probe into the green bolides from 1948 to 1951. and the Battelle Memorial Institute survey for the USAF from 1952 to 1955 ( Project Blue Book Special Report # 14 ) . Some public authorities studies have acknowledged the possibility of physical world of UFOs. but have stopped short of suggesting extraterrestrial beginnings. though non disregarding the possibility wholly. Examples are the Belgian military probe into big trigons over their air space in 1989–1991 and the recent 2009 Uruguay Air Force survey decision ( see below ) . Some private surveies have been impersonal in their decisions. but argued that the incomprehensible nucleus instances call for continued scientific survey. Examples are the Sturrock Panel survey of 1998 and the 1970 AIAA reappraisal of the Condon Report. United States