UNIT 2 Understand legislation relating to the safeguaring

Understand legislation relating to the safeguaring, protecion and welfare of children
Task 1
Knowledge of legislation surrounding the safeguarding, protection and welfare of children is paramount when caring of children.

Key legislation and guidance:
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (not law) – is the basis of UNICEF’s work, it is the most accurate statement on the rights of the child ever made. It is an international treaty on human rights. This convention is 54 articles that very precisely define children’s rights.

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Children Act 1989 – Primary legislation, which aims to ensure that children’s needs are met to ensure their well-being and protection against harm. This Act establishes that the well-being of children is the most important thing. It defines how local authorities, the police, NSPCC and other bodies should help protect children’s well-being, give the right to intervene in the authorities wherever we can assume that children are harmed and should be helped.

Children Act 2004 – created after the death of Victoria Climbie. It has specific goals as to who should safeguard the well-being of children and cover them from harm. It contains changes that give more power to the authorities if there is a suspicion that the children are harmed
Working Together to Safeguard Children (2018) – statutory guidelines – for all organizations working with children. It defines how the organization should cooperate, and how the practitioner should carry out the assessment if are thinking that children can be abuse, or harm. All there should show us how important is cooperation between people who can help by sharing information if they know something wrong is happening. Everyone can be person who can help. In this documents we can to find out what is the LADO – Local Authority Designated Officer and how it works.

What to do If You are Concerned a Child is Beeing Abuse (2015) summary documents – it is the best guidance for all those who work with children in order safeguard their welfare. It has recently been updated. It explains signs of abuse and neglect to look out for, and the action to take  if you think a child is being abused or neglected.

Keeping Children Safe at Education (2016) – statutory guidance – contains information on what school colleges should do and set out the legal duties what which must be comply in order children safe.

Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage – standards for learning, development and care for children from birth to five. The safeguarding and welfare requirements are given legal force by Regulations made under the Childcare Act 2006
Sharing Information (2015) – The government’s guidance on information sharing and safeguarding . Advice for practitioners providing safeguarding services to children, young people, parents and carers , because is the most important that we do not let concerns about sharing information stand in the way of protecting children who may be at risk of abuse or neglect.

Counter Terrorism and Security Act 2015 – Section 26 of the Act places a duty on schools in England (and Wales) to prevent people being drawn into terrorism. This duty applies to all schools and organisations covered by the Early Years Foundation Stage framework. The duty also applies to children’s homes. Statutory guidance has been published and comes into force on 1st July 2015.

Polices and procedures relating to the safeguarding, protection and welfare of Children
Polices and procedures are made to protect children from any form of abuse. Everyone who are working with children has a duty to safe guard children. We can identify :
Who is the lead safeguarding officer, who to contact if you are worrie about the child – is made to make us sure who have an operational responsibility for receiving concerns about the safety and welfare of our children. Who can make decisions about what action needs to be taken.

Visitors policy – registration, identification – – we have to be sure that every people who is coming into setting must be registered and possible to recognise if we need it..

Collecting Children policy – to cover children we need to know the person who is responsible for picking up children from school, so we ask parents for a written statement who has the right to pick up their child from school.

Uncollecting Children policy – what should we do when we have uncollected child – all practitioner must know what to do with uncollected children.

Mobile phones, data, social media, e-safety, recording, photos etc, policy – the policy provides that is impossible to use mobile phones in nursery all phones must be leave in personal locker, the policy inform how to sharing information for example who can do pictures and how is possible to use it (for example in personal children book which is giving for parents when child is leaving nursery)
Napy change and toileting, dressing, undressing policy – determines the rules of who, where and how to participate in these very personal activities, so that the child feels protected and safe.

Confidentiality policy – it defines very precisely how information is shared between staff members, staff and parents, and staff and the relevant institutions if we think that the child’s welfare is at risk
Whistleblowing policy – defines the duties of all employees to observe children in nursary environment to recognise small first symptoms of behavior, mood change, signs, marks which can be very important. What to do if we feel something wrong happened ( including if the abuse or inappropriate behavior concerns the employee, when we are thinking that someone of us can do something wrong we have no friends – we must inform about it) and how it should raported it to safeguarding officer, head teacher or senior worker who can help.

Medication policy – strictly defines the persons and methods of administering medicines to children in the nursery.

‘Whistleblowing ‘ – means that all of us have right and moral responsibility to raport every safeguard issues including if you believe the allegation towards a member of staff within the setting.
In Peter Pan, where I am working as a volunteer, a safeguarding policy is in force, renewed in 2017. It contains all the most important acts in force in England. In my work here, I have to be focused on careful observation because safeguarding incidents can happen anywhere. With full awareness and knowledge I should be sensitive to the recognition of any symptoms that may indicate that something is wrong with the child. I am aware that all my attention should be focused on providing children with all the best protection and, if need be, help. The Whistleblowing Policy also applies here which obliges me to report any signals that I will notice among my colleagues. In our nursary school every person working or cooperating is DBS checked cleared at enhanced level.

Explaine the responsibilities of the early years practitioner in relation to whistleblowing:
Whistleblowing if we are talking about Early Years Settings means that all of us have right and moral responsibility to raport every safeguard issues, including if you believe the allegation towards a member of staff within the setting. If the abuse or inappropriate behavior concerns the employee, when we are thinking that someone of us can do something wrong – we have no friends, we can not to cover it – we must inform about it. As a person work with children i have to know all safeguard polices in the setting. I am responsible to observe situation in the setting. If I feel something wrong is happening – including if the abuse or inappropriate behavior concerns the employee – I should raported it as soon as possible to safeguarding officer, head teacher or senior worker who can help with sharing information with relevant body. I can give my name or do it anonymously. I can’t to ignore any small sympthomes. Important person to help us is the LADO – Local Authority Designated Officer – who must respond to all reported signals, refer cases to relevant authorities and monitor whether and how they were resolved. The point is that each case should be dealt with and dealt with as quickly as possible.

The legislation supports the practice of the early years practitioner through policy and procedures that support them in their work with young children and their families
Explaine roles and responsibilities in realtion to the safeguarding, protection and welfare of children
To work as a part of profesional team it means for me protecting children against abuse, violence, neglect and exploitation is an obligation. It means, everyone (Education, Health Voluntary and other) who has contact with children and families in their everyday work, have a duty to promote and safeguard children by having good procedures and polices, by staff who is trained who knows that must put the child’s interests on first place to make children safe and happy.

To know when and how to respond when concerns are raised:
All staff who have concerns about children welfare should know whom to contact, when and how to raport it. Everything need clear written record of any concern. Everyone must follow the procedures for safeguarding children.
To identify behavioural changes in the children they care for – Practitioner who is everyday working with children person, can observe them in every situations, that’s why we can to recognize changes in their behaviour it can show us for example early symptoms of abuses, neglect, harm etc. We must be ready to listen children carefully and do not ignore information we got from them. We have to do everything to find out about the reason of this changes. It can be the key to recognize and stop bad practices.

To role model positive behaviour – as adults, we should try to be a positive role model for children in every situation. Our way of being, language, way of eating and spending free time, sport, active lifestyle should be a guide for them how they should behave. Children are watching and imitating us, so we must take care that our behavior is worth following and helps children build their own, good, responsible and safe life.

To observe and monitor children to ensure they are grooving in confidence – Nursary should be a place where all children will be given special care, where the whole team will work together to provide children with varied activities both inside and outside which will allow them to acquire knowledge, develop skills, build a sense of being unique. discreet observation and permission to undertake their own activities will help children gain confidence. We have to remember that a smile and a good word will allow us to build a unique relationship with children, which will make them open and, confidence.

To maintain attendance records – good practice should be monitoring children’s attendance. This daily practice may (but does not have to) help us determine whether the child is a victim of neglect. Very often it happens that the absence of a child is caused by, for example, alcohol abuse by parents (after drinking alcohol parents are afraid to appear in school so that someone will not notice that they are drunk preferring to leave the child at home) Incidental absence of a child is not surprising, but repetitive absenteeism, not supported by medical reasons should arouse vigilance and should be checked.

Explaine the boundaries of confidentiality in relation to the safeguarding, protection and welfare of children
People who share information with us would like to know, that information is confidential. To be sure that parents will not stop to share sensitive, delicate, personal information we have to give them fully confidential environment, they need to be sure we will never disclose information in an inappropriate way. Sometimes where appropriate before we share information we need to seek consent to do it. No rules apply when it comes to suspecting that a child is a victim of victim if abuse. Here we do not need permission to inform about the situation, be it a guard officer or any other institution that can help stop this violence. The principle of confidentiality of information can not give consent to inappropriate practices on the part of parents and we must respond to this information immediately.

Explaine benefits of working with others in the contexts of safeguarding, protection and welfare of children
Cooperation brings benefits. Is giving us better knowledge, bigger picture of the situation. Cooperation in the area of protection of security and well-being is a key element that allows for quick response and stopping the problem. We know that in the past there have been many tragasies caused by a mistake of omission, ignorance of the problem (eg Victoria Climbie’s death, Daniel Pelka’s death) Hundreds of people knew about the situation, but nobody tried to take joint actions to help these children. Only cooperation brings benefits, because nformation provided by various people means that the problem becomes loud and more and more people are interested in it. There is then a chance that a quick action will be taken to help the child in need Sharing our fears, sharing information and control whether actions have been taken will make the involvement of many people or institutions able to save many children.

Task 3
It is important that early years practitioners are able to recognize signs, symptoms, indicators and behaviours that may cause concern. Working closely with young children, the early years practitioner is able to recognize changes in a child which may be a cause for concern
Produce a leaflet to:
Describe signs, symptoms, indicators and behaviours that may cause concern
When working with children, each person should be sensitive to certain signs and symptoms that may indicate that something is wrong with the child. Very careful observation gives the chance to see even the smallest change in child’s behavior, whether the diagnosis of symptoms, signs on the body, which may indicate that we are dealing with a child who is a victim of violence.

We can recognize 4 types of abuse:
Physical abuse
Emotional abuse
Sexual abuse
Physical abuse
That is why it is so important to know the signs, symptoms, to be able to recognize whether the child is harmed in any way. We can to see: bruising (from being slapped, punched, shaken, squeezed), cuts (scratches, bite marks), fractures (skull and limb fractures from being thrown against hard objects), burns and scalds (from cigarettes, irons, baths or kettles)
Every bruise, wound, change on the skin of a child should be a signal to insightful information about the circumstances in which it was created.

We distinguish two types of injuries:
Accidental injuries (As a result of an accident)
Bony spiral protuberances
Non-Accidental injuries : which may (but do not have to) testify that the child is a victim of violence
Upper Arms
Inner Arms
Front Thigs
Back Thigs
The signs described above, that can be found on the child’s body, and the probability of appearance should be an indication for the child working on taking appropriate action. We must remember that every action in this matter is very delicate. The circumstances of the injury should be checked carefully. Happens that injuries in a place designated as non-accidental could actually arise once and as a result of an accident. A delicate curiosity can give an answer to our question. For example, if the sign on the cheek according to mother arose as a result of tweaking in the play with older brother and this is confirmed by the child and if it was actually observed once – we can consider it as an accident. But every sign or symptom can not to be ignored. Also we have to look out for bahavioural disturbance in the child – a child who has been physically abused may be aggressive, using physical force, or can be introverted.

Emotional abuse
A child – a victim of emotional violence is very difficult to diagnose. Emotional damage can not be seen, detected. Emotional abuse, neglect means that the child didn’t get love and enough affection from adult. It is often a child who is humiliated, offended, abused and punished for any reason. I also think that such a child often looks for closeness with a carer in order to get some love, care, often trying to get our attention. Only observation of the child’s behavior can show us that it is a child who has been abused.

When we can see that child is:
Low self-esteem and confidence
Telling lies
Withdrawn behaviour (not join in with others not appear to be having fun)
Tantrums beyond the expected age
Telling lies
it means that it is very possible that the child is hurt.
A child who is physically and mentally neglected often comes from a family with addiction to alcohol, drugs or mental problems, of course sometimes the victims of violence are children from very esteemed families. I think that for example an alcohol-drinking mother does not look at the needs of her child, does not care whether the child ate or went to school, or whether has clean clothes. In many cases for a parent who has problems with himself – the child ceases to be important. Often they don’t know how much they hurt children.

Neglect child symptoms:
Still hungry/underweight for age
Being constantly tired
Feeling alone
Insufficient clothes
Bad attendance at school/nursery
Dirty skin/clothes
Baby can have rash from infrequent nappy changing
Failure to Dentist, Doctors, Education
Every from this symptoms should be check because it can means we have a child in need.

Sexual abuse
Sexual abuse of children is the most perfidious form of violence. Sexual abuse means that children are victims of adult sexual activities, forced into various forms of sexual activity with them. It can involve physical contact (e.g rape, buggery, oral sex or non-penetrative acts) or it can include watching sexual activities, online sexual images, etc. Often, older children are forced to commit themselves to prostitution.

Sexual abuse symptoms – when a child is:
itching or pain in the genital area
overly sexually aware
inappropriate sexual language
poor sleeping and eating
not change in public
sexualised behaviourAbove I presented the signs and symptoms characteristic of particular types of violence. They are examples. We should be remember, however, that many times (for example in pathological families) more than one type of violence occurs. Therefore, it is very important to identify the situation precisely so that you can give your child the best possible help. All these symptoms require a reaction from people who work with children. However, there are many other signs and signals that can be noticed by a sensitive and empathic employee. Building close relationships with children will make them more open and trusting.

Describe actions to take if harm or abuse is suspected and/or disclosed
In any case of suspected or revealed harm or abuse, we must react immediately. Any suspicion must be reported to the head teacher or safeguarding officer or other named member of staff. I can always share my doubts because it is better if I tell my fears than ignore the problem. Sometimes something that may seem insignificant may turn out to be very important.
If a child chooses me to tell about harm, I should stay calm, be able to listen very carefully, without asking questions. I can not to show emotions. I must do everything to make the child sure that all of the informations are very important for me. Never I can to promise that I will keep this information only for myself. Then I should make a very accurate report that contains:
child’s name
child’s address
age of the child
date and the time of observation or the disclosure
I should write down what the child (or adult) told me (using only their own words!)
I can not make my own assessment of the situation
I have to avoid making judgments
I must also save the date time and name of the person to whom I reported the problem. I have to be sure that my record is signed and dated and will be keep in a confidential file and only designated person will use them, we must protect information from gossips or hearsays.

Task 4
Local Children Safeguarding Boards are required to revive serious case reviews in relation to harm or abuse
Resarch serious reviews and using this information:
Explain why serious case reviews are required
Serious Case Reviews (SCR) occurs after the death of a child or serious injury as well as abuse or neglect, case review is conducted to identify ways that local professionals and organisations can improve the way they work together to safeguard children. Serious Case Reviews are just one of the ways that organizations can learn from mistakes made earlier, in the past to better protect children. Reviews that focus on situations, each of which is different, can help everyone who is responsible for the safety of their children in the future. Multiple, deep analysis of tragic events from the past allows you to draw conclusions for the future. All this is designed to help create better prevention. Knowledge derived from tragedy can prove invaluable.


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